MB1 - Memory Definitions

  • Created by: Psych951
  • Created on: 09-05-18 17:50
Memory
Process of recording, storing, and retrieving experiences and information
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Sensory Memory
Holds incoming sensory information
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Short-term Memory
Temporarily holds information that we pay attention to
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Long-term Memory
Durable stored memories
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Working Memory
Temporarily holds information and processes it
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Phonological Loop
Mental representation of sound
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Phonological Store
Initial sound input
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Articulatory Rehearsal System
Repeats sound input
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Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
Stores visual and spatial information
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Inner Scribe
Stores information about movement and space
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Visual Cache
Stores information about form and colour
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Episodic Buffer
Integrates information from VSSP and PL and makes it coherent
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Central Executive
Directs action, attention and integrates information from episodic buffer
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Declarative Memory
Information about facts and knowledge - Conscious recall
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Procedural Memory
Information about motor and cognitive skills - Automatic recall
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Semantic Memory
General factual knowledge about the world
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Episodic Memory
Knowledge about our experiences
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Effortful vs. Automatic Processing
Effortful requires conscious engagement and automatic does not
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Structural Encoding
Shallowest level based on appearance of stimulus
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Phonological Encoding
Moderate level based on sound of stimulus
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Semantic Encoding
Deepest level based on meaning of stimulus
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Maintenance Rehearsal
Simple Rote Repetition
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Elaborative Rehearsal
Expand on the meaning of information e.g. mnemonics
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Dual-Coding Theory
Encoding information both visually and verbally enhances memory
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Method of Loci
Menta images associated with physical locations can enhance memory
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Mnemonic Devices
Reorganise information into meaningful units to aid memory
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Hierarchy of Memories
Link/organise memories to produce associations that enhance memory
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Enactment Effect
Performing a task will increase memory of it
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Schema
Mental framework to organise similar information
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Associative Network Model
Memories are stored as a network of associated concepts, with each memory represented by a node in the network
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Neural Network Model
Memories are represented by a unique pattern of nodes, which are information processing units
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Spreading Activation
Activation of one node can lead to the activation of associated nodes
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Priming
Activation of one node prepares us for another concept
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Parallel Distributed Processing Model
Simultaneous firing of nodes to spread activation
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Explicit Memory
Conscious/Intentional Retrieval
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Implicit Memory
No conscious awareness of memory influence
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Cue
Stimulus that activates memories and generates associations
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Autobiographical Memories
Memories of personal experiences enhanced by emotional arousal
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Flashbulb Memories
Vivid and clear memories of an experience
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Encoding Specificity Principle
Memory is enhanced when conditions of retrieval are similar to conditions of encoding = Context and state dependent
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Encoding Failure
Information is forgotten because it is not processed deeply enough
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Decay Theory
Information is forgotten because the memory traces fade over time
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Interference theory
Information is forgotten because other information impairs the ability to retrieve it
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Proactive Interference
Past information causes you to forget new information
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Retroactive Interference
New information causes you to forget old information
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Tip of the tongue state
Can't recall something but feel like you are on the verge
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Motivated Forgetting
Consciously or unconsciously forget an event because you want to
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Retrospective Memory
Memory of past
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Prospective Memory
Memory to do something in the future
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Amnesia
Memory loss due to special conditions or abnormalities
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Retrograde Amnesia
Memory loss for events prior to the trauma
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Anterograde Amnesia
Memory loss for events after the trauma
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Infantile Amnesia
The normal inability to remember events of the first few years of life
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Dementia
Impaired memory and cognitive deficits due to brain degeneration
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Misinformation Effect
Distortion of memories due to misleading post-event information
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Voluntary False Confession
Confessed due to pathological reason or wanting attention
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Compliant False Confession
Confessed to end suffering or relieve basic needs
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Internalised False Confession
Confessed due to problem with memory process leading them to believe they are actually guilty
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Memory Consolidation (in the brain)
Gradual binding process of memories in hippocampus and other regions
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Memory Formation (in the brain)
Structural neural changes leading to greater synaptic activity, enhanced connections and greater synaptic efficiency.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Holds incoming sensory information

Back

Sensory Memory

Card 3

Front

Temporarily holds information that we pay attention to

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Durable stored memories

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Temporarily holds information and processes it

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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