Mary I Key Info

  • Created by: jroe99
  • Created on: 10-06-18 19:57
Problem of gender
Some countries excluded women throygh salic law. Would be unable to: control faction, lead an army into battle. Expected to marry. John Knox said it was 'unnatural'.
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Mary's marriage
Edward Courtenay, supported by Gardiner. Philip of Spain supported by Paget. 27th October 1553, intention to marry Philip. 7th December, marriage treaty, approved January 1554.
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Wyatt's rebellion
Led by Sir James Croft, Sir Peter Carew, Thomas Wyatt. Meant to be in Devon, Leicestershire, Welsh Borders, only in Kent. Got to gate of London.
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Mary Tudor's death
Crown offered peacefully to Elizabeth, did try to convert.
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Divisions within Privy Council
Members up to 43, ineffective, rare for all to be present. Size of meetings similar to that under Northumberland. Committees exlcuding casual councillorss 1554. Inner council 1555. Philip left in 1555 & death of Gardiner Nov 1555, Paget dominated.
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Clashes between Gardiner & Paget
Initially over marriage. April 1554, rejected reintroduction of heresey laws, only passed once gurantee wouldn't be handed back to church.
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Impact of Pole
Cardinal Pole as papal legate. Mary referred to him or Spanish ambassador Simon Renard (aware of factional struggle). Faction not necessarily bad.
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Religious policies under Mary
Undo religious since 1529. Restore papal authority. Restore traditional Catholic practices. Re-establish monasteries. End clerical marriage. Secure long-term restoration through heir. Welcommed with enthusiasm, parliament opened with mass.
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Restoration of papal authority
Gardiner unsure. Oct 1553, refused to repeal Act of Supremacy, passed Act of Repeal, restored religion of 1547, Act of 6 Articles. Suspended 2nd Act of Uniformity, restored mass. 1554, royal injunction restored Catholic practices. Married clergy depr
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Heresey laws & Second Act of Repeal
Heresey laws rejected April 1554, until agreed lands wouldn't be returned. 1554, mass in Latin. 2nd Act of Repeal passed Nov 1554, guranteeing church land since 1536. Heresey laws reintroduced 1554, burnings began 1555.
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Catholic reform
Bishops ordered to make regular visitations. London synod stressed ending of pluralism. Pole ordered Catholic New Testament & Book of Homilies, wanted seminaries in every diocese. Increase of availability of Catholic works, eg. Hogarde
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Marian exiles
By early 1554, 800 protestants left England.
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Popular support
In Morebath, Devon, parishioners raised lots to purchase vestments & other Catholic equipment. Catholic worship returned speedily to most parishes.
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Catholic persecution
First burning of John Rogers February 1555. Nearly 300 burned, 51 women. Most in South East, London, Canterbury, Colchester. Lost support as ordinary citizens, eg. Rawlins White an ordinary citizen.
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John Foxe
Book of Martyrs, 1563.
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Impact of burnings
Ridley & Latimer burned in Oxford, October 1553, Cramner March 1556. Death of Gardiner 1555 removed restraining force. 274 perishing in last 3 years. Local authorities willing to enforce law.
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Geography of burnings
Justices of the Peace, issued letters urging action, shows unwillingness. But also unwilling to enforce other legislation eg. Vagrancy laws.
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Causes of Rebellion
Timing suggests marriage. Feared being dragged into Habsburg conflict. Xenophobic. All 4 leaders Protestant. Most support from Maidstone, Protestant. Kent cloth industry in decline.
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Events
Examined Courtenay, rebels had to act before ready. 3,000 men. Laid seige to Cooling castle. Mary made rallying speech at Guildall. Troops changed side, 'We are all Englishmen'. Rising close to London.
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Aftermath
Lack of punishment, suggests fear of more unrest. Mary's speech at Guildhall flattered supporters. Ignored Council's advice to leave London.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Mary's marriage

Back

Edward Courtenay, supported by Gardiner. Philip of Spain supported by Paget. 27th October 1553, intention to marry Philip. 7th December, marriage treaty, approved January 1554.

Card 3

Front

Wyatt's rebellion

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Mary Tudor's death

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Divisions within Privy Council

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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