LT12- Globalisation and Fundamentalism

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 25-11-15 18:59
What is the definition of globalisation?
Cultures around the world are becoming more closely connected due to the global nature of corporations, the increase in immigration andthe increased economic power of emerging nations,
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In India, what should globalisation stereotypically lead to and why?
-Secularisation, -As more people in India become better educated, society should become more secular,
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However, what sociologist argues the opposite is true in India and why?
-Nanda, -She observes that the wealthy middle class in India are becoming more religious, even though many are scientificallu educated,
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What evidence is used to support Nanda's argument?
Only 5% said that their religiosity had declined in the last five years, while 30% said that they had become more religious,
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What has the increase in religiosity been reflected in?
The growth of religious tourism- more people are visiting shrines and temples,
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What argument does Nanda present to suggest religion is popular in a modern world?
She argues it is becoming more fasionable to be religious and to be seen to be so,
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How does Nanda argues the middle class view opportunities that globalisation brings them and what does she argue?
-They are optimistic, -Modern Hinduism has evolved to be supportive in the environment that globalised cosumer capitalism creates,
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How do the middle class Indians balance out earning lots of money?
By paying for extravagant religious rituals, which also allows a person to 'show off' their wealth,
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Therefore, what does modern Hinduism legitimise?
The power of the middle class and allows them to adjust to a globalised world,
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What do Hindus use their faith for?
As a form of cultural defence,
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What has the worship of Hindu gods become the same as?
Worshipping the nation of India,
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What do Hindus consistently attribute their success where to what?
-Their success on the global markets, -To the superior values of Hinduism,
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How are they creating a collective consciousness?
It helps people fit into and be successful in the Indian and international community,
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Therefore, what does Hinduism influence and and example?
It influences India as a state- Astrology is taught in schools and universities, cow's urine is being bottled as a cure for AIDS,
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What does this suggest about religion in India?
This suggests that religion is an important part of Indian culture both nationally and internationally,
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However, what tensions can this lead to between to?
This increases tensiosn with non-Hindu Indians leading to localised discrimination and social conflict,
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What sociologist argues the emergence of what economies in the Far East had been kick started by religion?
-Redding, -Tiger Economies in the far East e.g. Taiwan, South Korea,
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What sociologist is this similar to and instead what religion began western industry?
-Weber, -Calvinism Protestant work ethic,
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What religion does Redding argue has similar values to Calvinist Protestants and what are they?
-Post-Confucian, -Values such as hard work, self discipline and self improvement,
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However, what does capitlaism in East Asia not explain about links with India?
It doesnt explain why India emerged at the same time as China
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What does Redding's argument have no direct causal relationship between?
The rise of Confucianism and the rise in economic power,
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What is pentacostalism?
Another religion that is based on Christianity
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What are some of the values Pentacostalism encourages?
It preaches abstinence ( e.g.from alcohol) and hard work,
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According to which sociologist, what has Pentacostalism lead to in what countries in the same way Calvinism developed?
-It has lead to capitalism, -It has emerged in American countries such as Brazil,
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In Brazil and Chile, describe membership and the size of the Pentecostalist religion and what are their effect on the country?
-There is a sizeable Pentacostalist middle class, -The work ethic is beginning to raise the country out of poverty,
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What sociologist attributes the success of Pentecostalism as a global religion due to its ability to do what?
-Lehmann, -Its ability to 'plug into' and incorporate local beliefs,
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Although pentecostalism preaches a similar message worldwide message, what does it do to incorporate local beliefs?
it uses imagery and symbolism drawn from local cultures and existing religious beliefs,
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What can also be attributed to the success of Pentecostalism that allows it to spread its message and where?
-Use of global communications media, -During 'road shows' and world tours by 'celebrity' preachers,
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What does this suggest about religion and growth?
It suggests religion has played an important role in modern day growth in non-western countries,
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However, what sociologist concedes that Pentecostalism doesnt always operates ?
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What does Berger say that Pentecostalism only operates as a force for what and where?
-A force for social change in place where natural resources already exist.
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Therefore what does this instead suggest about religion?
It suggests that religion alone cannot be the basis for social change,
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In addition, what other evidence could suggest that the development of Asian and South American countries weren't based on just religion?
The economic problems in the western world and other factors,
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What is the definition of fundamentalism?
A group of religious people who seek to return to the basic ideas of their faith.
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What sociologist argues Fundamentalism is a product of what?
-Giddens, - Globalisation,
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What can globalisation undermine and cause for many?
Globalisation tends to undermine the traditional norms and values and opens up debate on difficult issues such as abortion and homosexual marriage,
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What is Postmodernity characterised by?
-Reflexity, -Making quick decisions about difficult moral arguements,
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Therefore, what is Fundamentalism a reaction to and what does this allow them?
-An identity confusion, -They return to basic ideas laid out in a holy book to retreat to faith based answers to global questions,
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However, how does what sociologist argues some religions respond to globalisation?
-Castells -They look forward and engage with social movements sich as feminism and environmentalism
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As suggested by Postmodernists, the reflexibility might lead to the what of religion, known as what?
-The personalisation of religion, -Cosmopolitanism,
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What is this culture where people are selecting parts of religion called and what does this give them?
-Pick-and-mix culture, -It suits their social position and are accepting of different identities,
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However, what sociologist criticises both Giddens and Castells?
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What does Beckford argue about the limit of what is discussed about mainly fundamentalism?
He argues only fundamentalist groups and cosmopolitianism are discussed and there is a general ignorance as to how globalisation is effecting other religious movements,
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What does Beckford criticise about the limity of Postmodernist arguments and an example?
Postmodernists tend to join all fundamentalist groups together ignoring differences between them e.g. the Taleban and NCR have very different emphasis,
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Lastly, what does Becker criticise about the over emphasis on fundamentalism?
He argues there is an over emphasis on fundamentalism being a reaction to global issues, often fundamentalist movements spring up as a response to failed local governance,
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What sociologist argues that only certain religions are likely to produce fundamentalist ideology?
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What 7 characteristics of religions does Bruce argue means they are more likely to turn to fundamentalism,
-Believe in one God, -Single authoritative sacred text, -Clear rules for followers to follow, -Rejection of modern society, -Activism encouraged, -Policial agenda, -Reinforcement of nationalism,
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What sociologist uses what term to see religion being at the centre of a number of global conflicts?
-Huntington, -'Clash of civilisations',
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Give some examples of global conflicts caused by religion.
-9/11, -Bombings of Madrid, London and Bali,
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However, what sociologist argues that global conflicts are actually due to what?
-Jackson, -Due to western ideology stereotyping Eastern nations and people,
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What image argueably does western ideology present about Eastern people and why?
-Untrustworthy inferior 'others' to justify exploitation and human right injustices by the West,
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In addition, what sociologist argues what about hostility towards the west?
-Armstrong, -Argues hat towards the West doesn't stem from fundamentalist Islam but a reaction to Western foreign policy in the Middle East,
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In developed countries such as the West, why do fundamentalist groups form in opposition/ reaction to what?
Reaction to the increased permissiveness of society and the rejection of the church in decision making,
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Give an example of a Fundamentalism group in the USA?
-The New Christian Right,
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What are the NCR's aim for America?
To take God back to America and turning back the clock of American liberalisation
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What do the NCR want to make illegal?
Abortion, homosexuality and divorce,
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What do the NCR want to teach in schools instead of what?
-Teaching of creationism in schools as opposed to evolution,
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In developing countries in the East, why do Fundamentalist groups form/ as a reaction to?
Reaction to an outside force trying to change religion's role in society,
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Give an example Fundamentalist group in Iran?
The Iranian Revolution
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Why did the Iranian Revolution start as a reaction to what?
AS a reaction to Western interference- a bid for social change, non Muslim ideas on a Muslim population created great unrest,
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Currently, what problems are Iran going through?
A number of internal crises connected to the lack of democracy for the people. Numerous people have been arrested and executed to stop Iran becoming a democracy.
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To conclude, globalisation often ignores what?
That most conflict comes from religious groups within societies and cultures. E.g. the Sunni's and Shi'a in Iraq
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Card 2


In India, what should globalisation stereotypically lead to and why?


-Secularisation, -As more people in India become better educated, society should become more secular,

Card 3


However, what sociologist argues the opposite is true in India and why?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What evidence is used to support Nanda's argument?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What has the increase in religiosity been reflected in?


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