Liberalism Key Words

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  • Created by: zoerelf
  • Created on: 12-05-16 17:50
Feudalism
A system of agrarian based production that is characterized by fixed social hierarchies.
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Divine Right
The doctrine that earthly rulers are chosen by God and thus wield unchallengeable authority.
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Absolutism
A form of government in which political power is concentrated in the hands of a single individual or small group
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Classical Liberalism
A tradition within liberalism that seeks to maximize the realm of unconstrained individual action typically by establishing a minimal state and a reliance on market economics
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Modern Liberalism
A tradition within liberalism that provides a qualified endorsement for social and economic intervention as a means of promoting personal development.
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The Enlightenment
An intellectual movement that reached its height in the 18th century, challenged traditional beliefs in religion.
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Atomism
A belief that society is made up of a collection of self-sufficient individuals or atoms, rather than social groups
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Human Nature
The essential and innate character of all human beings
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Freedom (or liberty)
The ability to think or act as one wishes, a capacity that can be associated with the individual, a social group or a nation.
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Negative Freedom
The absence of external restrictions or constraints on the individual, allowing freedom of choice
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Positive Freedom
Self-mastery or self-realization, the achievement of autonomy and the development of human capacities.
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Rationalism
The belief that the world has a rational structure, this can be disclosed through the exercise of human reason and critical enquiry.
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Paternalism
Authority exercised from above for the guidance and support of those below, modeled on the relationship between fathers and children.
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Justice
A moral standard of fairness and impartiality; social justice is the notion of a fair or justifiable distribution of wealth and rewards in society.
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Equality
The principle that human beings are of identical worth or are entitled to be treated in the same way; equality can have widely differing applications.
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Meritocracy
Literally, rule by those with merit, merit being intelligence plus effort. A society where social position is determined by ability and hard work.
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Pluralism
A belief in diversity or choice, or the theory that political power is or should be widely and evenly dispersed.
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Toleration
Forbearance; a willingness to accept views or action with which one is in disagreement
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Social Contract
A hypothetical agreement amongst individuals through which they form a state in order to escape from the disorder and chaos of the 'state of nature'
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State of Nature
A pre-political society characterized by unrestrained freedom and the absence of established authority.
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Constitutionalism
The practice of limited government brought about by the existence of a constitution
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Majoritarianism
A belief in majority rule; majoritarianism implies either that the majority dominates the minority, or that the minority should defer the judgement to the majority.
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Utilitarianism
A moral and political philosophy that seeks to achieve 'the greatest happiness for the greatest number'
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Free market
The principle or policy of unfettered market competition, free from government interference.
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Laissez-faire
The doctrine that economic activity should be entirely free from government interference, an extreme belief in the free market.
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Altruism
Concern for the interests and welfare of others.
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Card 2

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The doctrine that earthly rulers are chosen by God and thus wield unchallengeable authority.

Back

Divine Right

Card 3

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A form of government in which political power is concentrated in the hands of a single individual or small group

Back

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Card 4

Front

A tradition within liberalism that seeks to maximize the realm of unconstrained individual action typically by establishing a minimal state and a reliance on market economics

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A tradition within liberalism that provides a qualified endorsement for social and economic intervention as a means of promoting personal development.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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