Lenin's Policies

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  • Created by: anna10g
  • Created on: 28-04-18 19:23
What social and economic discontent caused NEP?
No improvement in living and working standards, 5 million famine deaths during war communism, Grain production drastically low -> food shortages
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How did the Russian people call for political change?
Strikes, Open revolts, Green armies fought grain seizures, Kronstadt mutiny March 1921 ('Lit up reality' - Lenin -> Lenin realised war communism needed to end)
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Key features of NEP
Grain requisitioning replaced with 'tax in kind', small businesses re opened, Ban on private trade removed, State control of heavy industry
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Why were small businesses re opened under NEP?
Lenin realised peasants would not sell their produce unless there were goods they wanted on sale
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What was the attitude of the party towards NEP?
Some considered it a betrayal of Oct. rev, Bukharin (outstanding economist) supported it, Lenin prepared to let peasants have a little capitalism if it kept them in power. Kronstadt revolt convinced doubters (though only as a temporary measure)
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Successes of NEP
Food in city markets, brisk trade, 23% increase in cereal production 1920-23, rapid industrial recovery-factory out put increased by nearly 20%, small businesses responded to surging demand, Rapid recovery in villages, nepmen - aided village recovery
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Problems caused by NEP
Price of food dropped but industrial goods prices increased - "Scissors crisis" - Trotsky
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How did the govt. attempt to solve the scissors crisis?
Collected taxes in cash rather than food to encourage selling of produce
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What were the powers of the cheka?
answerable only to Lenin - able to arrest, detain and torture - terrorised the Russian people into subservience
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What was the result of the end of trade union independence, 1920?
Workers under military discipline: Factory workers spied on , Severe punishment for not meeting Ind. targets, Not to question orders, could not negotiate pay or conditions
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How was the Kronstadt uprising supressed?
Trotsky & Red Army - 20,000 casualties, those who escaped were hunted down and executed by the Cheka
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How were the Red Army kept under control?
Trotsky's strong discipline during civil war - death penalty for leaving front
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Key features of Lenin's foreign policy
Treaty of Brest Litvosk, Red army drove back 1920 Polish invasion, but failed to take Warsaw, Put hopes of world communism on hold (peaceful coexistance temporary), Main aim: divide imperialist countries and prevent the formation of a capitalist bloc
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Causes of the Anglo-Soviet agreement 1921
Russia could not remain so isolated, needed to trade to revive industry, Britain considered the centre of the capitalist world order, so russia targeted it for diplomatic recognition
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Why did Britain and Russia have an uneasy relationship?
Curzon Ultimatum & Russian Central Council of Trade Unions sent £26,000 to TUC during 1926 general strike
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Why did Russia/Britain diplomatic relations end?
1927 police raid on Russian Trade Mission in London
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Why did Russia pursue agreements with Germany?
Natural allies (both outcast states), agreements with Germany would give Russia bargaining power over France and Britain
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What was the 1922 Rapallo Treaty?
Diplomatic and economic co operation between Russia and Germany, renunciation of financial claims against each other
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How did German and Russian militaries collaborate?
German officers trained in the Red Army - this allowed them to use weapons forbidden in the Treaty of Versailles
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What was the 1926 Treaty of Berlin?
Reaffirmed Rapallo to reassure Russia + neutrality pledge
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What was Comintern?
An international congress of revolutionary soviets (1st in 1919)
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What was the result of failed revolutions in Berlin, Munich, Hungary?
Lenin came to conclusion that successes could only be achieved if the foreign community adopted the Bolshevik model
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How was the second comintern congress different?
It was much larger, there were 21 conditions for membership (eg: communist parties had to formed along Lenin's lines - disciplined and centralised)
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What problems did Comintern face?
Curzon Ultimatum, Threatening nature alienated capitalist countries, fueled western fears, intensified anticommunist sentiment and reduced appeal of party
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What was the Curzon Ultimatum?
Britain threatened to cancel the Anglo-Soviet trade agreement of 1921 if the soviets did not cancel activities in India. Soviets complied.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How did the Russian people call for political change?

Back

Strikes, Open revolts, Green armies fought grain seizures, Kronstadt mutiny March 1921 ('Lit up reality' - Lenin -> Lenin realised war communism needed to end)

Card 3

Front

Key features of NEP

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why were small businesses re opened under NEP?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the attitude of the party towards NEP?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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