LAW 02 CASES

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ACTUS REUS?
Actus Reus means the unlawful act- the physical act
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OMISSIONS?
Cannot usually form the basis of the Actus Reus however there are some exceptions where the law will impose a duty to act
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EXAMPLES OF OMISSIONS?
A duty to act through a contract- R V Pitwood....A Duty taken on voluntarily- Stone and Dobinson...A Duty through a relationship... Gibbons and proctor...A duty through act through ones official position...Dytham
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CAUSATION?
In 'Result Crimes' A casual link between the defendants actions and the consequence must be proved.
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FACTUAL CAUSATION?
Uses the 'But For' test. In R v White, the D was not a factual cause, In R v Pagget the D was a factual cause
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LEGAL CAUSATION?
Establishes what the substantial and operating/ significant cause of the consequence is
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R V SMITH
The D received 'thoroughly bad treatment' but died as a result of blood loss from the original stab wound. Smith was operating and Substantial cause.
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R V CHESHIRE
V died from rare complications of a tracheotomy but Cheshire was still a significant cause as the treatment was for injury caused by him
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INTERVENING ACTS
Will only break the chain if they are unforeseeable. Can be the victims own act, a third party act, medical negligence
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R V ROBERTS
A foreseeable act that is proportionate to the threat will not break the chain
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R V WILLIAMS
An act that is daft and not in proportion with the threat will break the chain
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R V JORDAN
Broke the chain of causation through medical negligence as the treatment was 'palpably wrong'
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THIN SKULL RULE
Means you must take your victim as you find them and be liable for all the consequences. This will cover the victims mental/physical conditions and even beliefs as in R v Blaue
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MENS REA?
The mental element of the crime- the state of mind- there are a number of states of mind that can amount to mens rea
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INTENT
Intention is where you act deliberately or make something your aim objective and purpose- R v Mohan
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OBLIQUE INTENT
Is where the consequence of actions is a virtual certainty yet the defendant goes ahead with their actions. R v Nedrick, confirmed in Woolin
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RECKLESSNESS
Where the D knows the risk of their actions yet goes ahead with them anyway- R v Cunningham as backed up in R v G and Others
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TRANSFERRED MALICE
When a person injures someone other than their intended victim this will apply
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R V LATIMER
A man aimed to hit another man with a belt, he instead hit a woman. The malice was transferred from the intended victim to the woman
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R V PEMBILTON
The malice cannot be transferred between two separate crimes, in this case the D threw a stone aiming at their victim but hit and smashed a window
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

OMISSIONS?

Back

Cannot usually form the basis of the Actus Reus however there are some exceptions where the law will impose a duty to act

Card 3

Front

EXAMPLES OF OMISSIONS?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

CAUSATION?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

FACTUAL CAUSATION?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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