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An actus reus must be a voluntary act

Hill v Baxter D's car collided with another; he Judge stated that involuntary
claimed he had become overcome driving could be caused by a
with an unknown illness. knock to the head or being stung
by a swarm…

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malnutrition. D1 & D2 Guilty of

Evans 2009 Heroin addict V lived with mother Duty of Care- Mother
and half sister. Half sister bought Created State of Affairs-
heroin and V self injected. V Half-sister
overdosed but mum or step sister
did not summon help and put her to…

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Khan and Khan D's supplied heroin to user who Law is capable of expanding to all
collapsed in their presence. D's left sorts of new situations which could
her alone and when they returned V make the law uncertain.
was dead. Conviction for Unlawful E.G. in Evans the sister gave…

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White 1920 D put cyanide in mothers drunk `But for' D's actions of poisoning
intending to kill her. Mother died but the drink would V have died? Yes.
Intervening Event of a heart attack before drinking the D's acts did not have a direct link to
drink. the death ;…

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doctor still gave it to him; V died in

Malcherek 1981 D stabbed wife in stomach; V put on Judge refused to allow causation-
life-support. V was brain dead and Life support machines are not
machines switched off. D was charged intervening events.
with murder.

Refusing Treatment

Blaue 1975…

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Roberts 1971 D made sexual advances towards V in The victims own act will not
car. V jumped out of car whilst moving break chain of causation if D
20-30mph and became injured. caused the victim to act in a
foreseeable way.

Majoram 2000 D and others kicked at V's…


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