Language change key terms

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  • Created by: Bethany
  • Created on: 11-01-13 14:56
Diachronic Change
The study of historic language change over a span of time
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Synchronic change
An approach that studies language at a theoretical point in time without considering the historical context
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Lexicon
the vocabulary of a language
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Political correctness
Words or phrases used to replace those that are deemed offensive
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Overt prestige
The status gained from using the standard form of a language. E.G standard English
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Covert prestige
The status speakers gain who chose to use standard dialect within a particular group in society
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Eponym
The name of a person after whom something is named
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Proprietary names
Name given by a product becomes the commonly used name for the same product
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clipping
a new word produced by shortening an existing one
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affixion
The addition of a bound morphemes to an existing word
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Conversions
a word changes its word class without adding a suffic
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Compound
Combining separate words to create a new word, often using a hyphen
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Back formation
The removal of an imagined affix from an existing word, EG editor became edit
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Obsolete
no longer having any use
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Semantic Drift
A process of linguistic change over a period of time
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Pejoration
word takes on a more negative meaning
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Amelioration
a word takes on a more positive meaning
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Narrowing
a word becomes more specific in its meaning
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broadening
A word keeps it oringinal meaning but acquires others
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Metaphor
a word acquires a new meaning because it is used metaphorically
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Euphemism
Describing something unpleasant in a more pleasant way
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Idiom
cannot be understood literally. E.g pull your socks up
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Archaism
an old word or phrase no longer in general spoken or written use
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Dummy auxiliary
The verb 'do' which is used to form questions and negatives or to add emphasis in a statement
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Influential power
power used to influence or persuade others
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instrumental power
power used to maintain and enforce authority
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omission
the leaving out of a phoneme in a group of phonemes clustered together
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assimilation
The pronunciation of one phoneme is affected by an adjacent phoneme. E.G don't you becmes dohnchu
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divergence
a persons speech pattern becomes more individual rather than those of whom they are talking to.
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eye dialect
a way of spelling words that suggests a regional or social way of talking
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Synchronic change

Back

An approach that studies language at a theoretical point in time without considering the historical context

Card 3

Front

Lexicon

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Political correctness

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Overt prestige

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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