Language and Occupation

Name three ways in which language can be affected by occupation
Phatic talk, asymmetrical frameworks and jargon
1 of 30
What is phatic talk?
Verbal or non-verbal communication that has a social function
2 of 30
Who coined phatic talk and how did he define it?
Malinowski in 1972 - "language used in free, aimless, social intercourse in which ties of union are created by a mere exchange of words."
3 of 30
Name an occupational field where phatic talk is important
Medicine
4 of 30
Give an example of phatic talk in this occupation
Exclamations such as "Hello!" and using the patient's personal name
5 of 30
What is the effect of phatic talk in this occupation?
Patient gains a sense of trust from the Doctor. Establishes an interpersonal relationship. Enables patient to feel at ease in personal situation.
6 of 30
What theorist can you relate this to?
Koester 2004
7 of 30
What did he suggest?
Connecting with others is an important dimension in workplace communication and using phatic communication is a significant factor within occupations
8 of 30
What other occupation is phatic talk important in?
Catering industry
9 of 30
Give an example of phatic talk in this occupation
Interrogatives such as "How was your weekend?"
10 of 30
What is the effect of this phatic talk in this occupation?
Prevents tension building in stressful situation - cooking food and meeting demands for customers. Builds solidarity and supports social relationships
11 of 30
What are the drawbacks of phatic talk?
Some feel it is not always efficient in the workplace as too much small talk can prevent tasks from being completed
12 of 30
What is the argument against this?
Sociable talk is an integral part of the task and that building of relationships as a goal in itself implies that phatic communication is not purposeless
13 of 30
What environment does phatic talk create?
A collaborative, productive and harmonious work environment
14 of 30
What is jargon defined as?
Words or phrases that are used solely in a particular job
15 of 30
Give an example of jargon in an occupational context
Law- in situ and voir doir - derived from Latin, archaic and highly formal
16 of 30
What can the jargon do?
It can restrict those who do not have experience in the law field and associates prestige with the occupation
17 of 30
What theory can this relate to?
Swales (2011)
18 of 30
What did he suggest?
Members of the same discourse community use lexis specific to that occupation - can be used to create power differences in this occupation
19 of 30
What other occupations can this relate to?
Catering - check on, tab
20 of 30
What is the affect of this jargon?
Shared understanding therefore efficient method of communication (linguistic efficiency) which is important due to the pressurising environment
21 of 30
How is catering jargon different to law jargon?
It has broader meaning within general use therefore easier to access
22 of 30
How do asymmetrical frameworks affect language use?
Low positions will use language differently than those who are of a higher position
23 of 30
What occupation can you relate this to?
Law enforcement - hidden directives "Please can you step out of the car?" as a polite interrogative
24 of 30
How does this polite interrogative work?
Individual in question has no choice to obey due to the officer's authoritative position
25 of 30
What other occupation can you link this to?
Teachers - imperatives "do your homework" and topic management through interruptions - helping a child who is struggling to answer a question
26 of 30
What theory does this link to?
Drew and Heritage 1993
27 of 30
What did they suggest?
Hierarchies are marked by language use, suggesting those with relatively low power have more restrictions in the way they use language
28 of 30
Give an example of this
A employee will refrain from using taboo language such as swear words when conversing with their employer. However the employer may use language due to their authority
29 of 30
How does this relate to Drew and Heritage's theory?
Relates to the idea that "members of a discourse community share inferential frameworks" and "implicit ways of thinking, communicating and behaving"
30 of 30

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is phatic talk?

Back

Verbal or non-verbal communication that has a social function

Card 3

Front

Who coined phatic talk and how did he define it?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name an occupational field where phatic talk is important

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give an example of phatic talk in this occupation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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