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Quantitative data
data in the form of numbers and statistics.Provides us with trends and percentages.
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Qualitative data
Data in the form of written analysis and description. This gives us a valid picture of what is really happening.
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data is valid if it produces a true or genuine picture of what something is really like
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data is reliable when different researchers can use this method and get the same results.
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Ethical issues
protection from harm, maintain confidentiality and informed consent
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Practical issues
time and money,funding bodies,personal skills and characters,subject matter,reseach opportunities
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covert method
dont tell the group they are being studied. This is usually critisised as theres a lack of consent and honesty.
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Labatory experiment
A controlled test carried out in controlled conditions to establish a cause and effect relationship. The method favoured by scientists for discovering laws e.g. what makes plants grow.
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control group
you keep the quantity constant, measurments must be taken to record changes
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experiment group
vary the quantity. Carefully measuring and recording changes we observe
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independent variable
the causal effect
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dependent variable
the effect
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field experiment
exeperiments carried out outside a lab in real life environments such as schools.
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Hawthorne effect
If participants are told they are in the experiment they may change their behaviour to meet the observers expectations
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research projects which collect standardised data about large numbers of people
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an explanation that can be tested by collecting evidence to prove it is true or false
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the process of converting a concept e.g. social class into something that can be measured
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pilot study
a small scale study completed before research to identify problems
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Qualitative data


Data in the form of written analysis and description. This gives us a valid picture of what is really happening.

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Ethical issues


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