Key Words

An aldehyde formed when glycerol is heated to a high temperature; it is responsible for the acid odour produced when fats are overheated
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A natural or synthetic substace which is added to food for specific purpose
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The process of introducing a gas, such as air, into a liquid. Beaten eggs contribute volume and lighter texture to baked goods such as sponge cake. The aeration achieves lighter textured foods
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Anti-Caking Agent
Compounds added to powdered, dry foods to prevent clumping or caking
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A substance which prevents oxidative rancidity of fats in foods
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Ascorbic Acid
Vitamin C; a water soluble compound
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Single celled organisms present in air, soil, animals and the human body
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is the process of sugar turning brown through heat being applied. Water may or may not be added.
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It is when something thickens from a liquid to a solid. For example, raw eggs are clear and runny but become white and solid when heated
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To cover food with a "coating" that can be wet (e.g. sauce, mayo, etc.) or dry. For example, before chicken is fried, it's usually dipped in an egg batter then "coated" with flour.
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Soluble compounds formed by the breakdown of starch by heat, enzymes or acids
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Dietary Fibre
Material, mostly from plants, which is not digested by humans but which absorbs water binds other residues in the intestine which aids the excretion of waste material from the body
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Dietary Guidelines
Advice from the government on recommended food intake in order to achieve dietary goals
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Dietary Reference Values
A set of standards of the intakes for most nutrients needed for good health
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A mixture of two immiscible liquids
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Emulsifying Agents
Substances which enable water and oil to be uniformly dispered
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A protein substance which catalyses a metabolic reaction
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Enzymic Browning
This occurs when oxygen from the air reacts with substances in food in the presence of enzymes forming browning. It occurs in fresh foods such as apples, bananas and avocados when they are peeled or have the cellular structure damaged in any way
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Chemical breakdown of sugars by the action of yeast and bacteria
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The addition of nutrients to manufactured foods to provide an increased intake and replace nutrients lost during processing. Usually done to standard components, e.g. breakfast cereal
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It is a sol which has cooled. On cooling the molecules which are compact and coiled in a sol, unwind and cross links form. It can sometimes reform into a sol if it is heated and becomes a liquid. Disperse phase is water,Continuous is gelatine/strach
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A process that occurs when starch is mixed with a liquid and heated; the starch thickens the liquid
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A glaze in cooking is a coating of a glossy, often sweet, sometimes savoury, substance applied to food typically by dipping, dripping, or with a brush. Egg whites and basic icings are both used as glazes.
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The conversion of oils to solid fats by the addition of hydrogen to the unsaturated double bonds
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A hormone which controls the metabolism of carbohydrates
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Present in egg yolk and soya and used as an emulsifier in manufactured foods
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A general term used to describe fats, oils and waxes
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Maillard Reaction
This occurs during roasting, baking, grilling, frying etc It is caused by a chemical reaction between an amino acid and glucose in the presence of heat. It produces an attractive colour and an appetising aroma
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Complex chemical reactions which enable the body to grow and function and to replacebody cells
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Simple sugars; the common base units from which other carbohydrates are formed
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Monosodium Glutamate
A flavour enhancer found in soy sauce. It brings out the flavour of savoury foods and is added to a number of savoury processed foods
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Non-Starch Polysaccharide (NSP)
The indigestible part of food; cellulose (the cell wall of plants)
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Oxidative Rancidity
Occurs in unsaturated fats and oils. The reaction is initiated by the presence of some metals, ultra violet light and high temperatures
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The process of prolonging, the keeping quality of products such as milk by heating to destroy harmful bacteria
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Capacity of a fat to spread
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A complex polysaccharide, formed by some plants. It forms gels in water and is used in the setting of jam
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A disease caused by a deficiency of Niacin
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An enzyme which hydrolyses protein during digestion
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Peptide Bond
A link between amino acids used in the formation of dipeptides, polypeptides and proteins
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Long chains of amino acids used to form proteins
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Formed from varying numbers of monosaccharide units. Usually insoluble in cold water
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The term used to describe polyunsaturated fatty acids
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Live micro-organisms which are added to foods and thought to restore the microbial balance in the intestine
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A product made from mycoprotein (a fungi), which provides a good source of protein for vegetarians. The fungus is called Fusarium venenatum
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A chemical change caused by oxidation or hydrolysis. It causes 'off' flavours to develop
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A sol is a protein or starch dispersed in water and heated to form a ‘sol’ e.g. jelly (gelatine is dispersed in water and heated). There are two phases; Disperse phase which is the gelatine and the Continuous phase which is the water
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A polysaccharide composed from units of glucose
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Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP)
Usually protein produced from defatted soya beans. It is either extruded or formed into chunks. It is used as an alternative protein for vegetarians and vegans
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The thickness of a liquid or a mixture, such as a sauce
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Xanthan Gum
Polysaccharide produced by bacterial fermentation and used as a thickening agent to form gels and increase viscosity
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Fungi which are involved in fermentation and spoilage of sweetened or salted products; it is a source of vitamin B and protein
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Produced from milk coagulated with two types of bacteria. It can be stirred or set, pasteurised or live. Bio yoghurts also contain bacteria which are thought to enhance the growth of beneficial bacteria in the intestine
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A natural or synthetic substace which is added to food for specific purpose

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Anti-Caking Agent


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