Issues and debates flashcards

What is universality?
An underlying characteristic of human beings that is capable of being applied to all despite differences in upbringing etc.
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Within gender bias what are the 2 subcatergories called?
Alpha and beta
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What is alpha bias?
Research that exaggerates differences between the sexes
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What is beta bias?
Research that ignores the differences between the sexes
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What is androcentrisim? (gender bias)
Male centred research; where normal behaviour is standardised to men
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What is ethnocentrism? (cultural bias)
A belief in the superiority of one's own culture. Any behaviours that do not conform (usually western) to the model are deficient, unsophisticated or underdeveloped.
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What is cultural relativism?
The idea that norms and values can only be meaningful and understood within specific social and cultural contexts
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What is an idividualist culture?
Western countries: value personal freedom and independance
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What is a collectivist culture?
India and china: place more emphasis on the needs of the group
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What is free will?
The notion that humans can make choices and are not determined by biological of external forces
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What is determinism?
An individual's behaviour is shaped or controlled by internal or external forces
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What is hard determinism?
Free will is not possible as our behaviour always has a internal or external cause
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What is soft determinism?
All behaviour has a cause but behaviour can also be determined by our conscious choices
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What are the 3 main types of determinism?
Biological, environmental and psychic
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What is biological determinism?
The belief that behaviour is caused by biological influences that we cannot control
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What is environmental determinism?
The belief that behaviour is caused by features of the environment (conditioning)
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What is psychic determinism?
The belief that behaviour is caused by unconscious conflicts that we cannot control (Freudian)
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What is the interactionist approach?
Where hereditary and environment interact
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What is the diathesis stress model?
Psychopathology is caused by a genetic vulnerability (diathesis) which is only expressed with a biological or environmental trigger (stress)
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What is epigenetics?
A change to our egentic activity without changing our genetic code caused by an interaction with the environment
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What is holism?
You have to analyse the person or behaviour as a whole system not its constituent parts
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What is reductionism?
Human behaviour is bst explained by breaking it down into its constituent parts
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What are the levels of explanation in psychology?
The notion that there are many different ways of viewing the ame phenomena
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Diagram of the reductionist hierarchy.
.
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What is biological reductionism?
All behaviour is on some level biological so can be explained by factors such as genes
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What is environmental determinism?
All behaviour is explaiined by simple stimmulus-response links that have been learnt through experienece
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What does idiographic mean?
Research focuses more on an individual like a case study
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What does nomothetic mean?
Studies human behaviour through the development of general principles and universal laws like experiments involving a large quantity of participants
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What are ethical implications?
The impact of psychological researxg such as how a certain group of people are regarded after research has been conducted
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What is socially sensitive research?
Studies in which there are potential consequences or implications either directly for the participants in the research or for the class of individuals represented by the research.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Within gender bias what are the 2 subcatergories called?

Back

Alpha and beta

Card 3

Front

What is alpha bias?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is beta bias?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is androcentrisim? (gender bias)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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