1. What did research by Holmes, Gathercole & Dunning (2009) show about the effectiveness of adaptive training on WM?
- Showed a higher standard score increase in visuo spatial WM compared to verbal WM
- Showed significant improvements to a variety of WM areas including Verbal&Visuospatial WM
- Showed a negative effect on WM compared to controls across all areas
- Showed no improvement in WM area scores compared to controls across all areas.
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2. What was the main conclusion reached from research by Melby-Lervag and Hulme (2013)?
- WM improvement programmes did not produce short or long term improvements, and are not clinically approved
- WM improvement prorammes enhanced cognitive functioning in adulthood if carried out before age 7yrs.
- WM improvement programmes produced short term improvements in WM skills, but limited and not generalisable evidence for this training to all WM areas
- WM improvement programmes produced both short and long term improvements, and are clinically approved
3. What did a neural correlate study of WM training by Olesen et al (2004) show?
- After training, there were increases in frontal and parietal activity
- After training, there were decreases in frontal and parietal activity
- WM training had no effect on neural activity
- WM training increased activity in frontal and occipital structures, but decreased in parietal
4. What is neuroplasticity?
- The brains maximum number of neural pathways that can be created in a lifetime
- How well synapses transmit neural information
- The brains potential to create and reorganise neural pathways to adapt to suit its needs
- The relative size and density of each brain structure
5. Which of these is a characteristic of poor WM in children?
- Low academic attainment at age 6yrs
- Organisational and planning problems
- Working well in group tasks but poorly independently
- Sustained attention spans