Intelligence Research Flashcards

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Intelligence (Definition): Boring (1923)
“Intelligence is what is measured by intelligence tests.”
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Intelligence (Definition): Smith et al. (2003)
“The ability to learn from experience, think in abstract terms and deal effectively with one’s own environment”
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Intelligence (IQ Tests): Alfred-Binet (1916)
Made to identify poor academic abilities, has been adapted a number of times.
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Intelligence (IQ Tests): Standford-Binet IQ Test
Standardised test; assesses IQ and cognitive ability in 2-23 year olds - tests in 4 areas.
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Intelligence (Psychometric Theories): Spearman (1927)
TWO-FACTOR THEORY; specific abilities (s) and general intelligence (g)
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Intelligence (Psychometric Theories): Kuncel et al. (2004)
(TFT) Meta-analysis of 127 papers; found that ‘g’ is a good predictor of general success.
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Intelligence (Psychometric Theories): Duncan et al. (2000)
(TFT) Found neurophysiological evidence for ‘g’ using PET scans.
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Intelligence (Psychometric Theories): Cattell (1943)
GF-FC THEORY: crystallised intelligence (GC) and fluid intelligence (GF)
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Intelligence (Psychometric Theories): McArdle et al. (2000)
(GFGC) Found that GC tends to rise over a lifespan where GF usually decreases.
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Intelligence (Psychometric Theories/ Cultural Impacts): Williams (1972)
(EVAL) Tests often bias in favour of white participants, however BITCH test – black participants IQ score far higher using culturally specific test.
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Intelligence (Information Processing Theories): Sternberg (1977)
TRIARCHIC THEORY; creative, analytical, practical (CAP) ALTHOUGH WORK IN PROGRESS (Sternberg, 2004)
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Intelligence (Information Processing Theories): Merrick (1992)
(TT) Factor- analysis; 268 Dutch high school girls, found evidence of all 3 types.
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Intelligence (Information Processing Theories): Sternberg et al. (1999)
Teaching ‘triarchially’ leads to improved academic performance.
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Intelligence (Information Processing Theories): Gardner (1983)
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY (e.g. Linguistic, Musical, Interpersonal.)
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Intelligence (Information Processing Theories): Waterhouse (2006)
(MIT) Theory is no longer researched as inadequate.
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Intelligence (Information Processing Theories): Marchland (2008)
(MIT) supports the existence of bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence, finding that mud masons in Mali communicated building skills via physical repetition without using words - practical applications when teaching apprentices.
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Intelligence (Animal Conditioning): Pavlov’s Dogs (1902)
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING; further investigation; extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalisation, discrimination.
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Intelligence (Animal Conditioning): Wicoxon et al. (1971)
(CC) Birds do not learn to identify sickness producing foods based on taste – implies CC does not apply to all animals.
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Intelligence (Animal Conditioning): Hollis (1984)
(CC) Found that male gourami fish could be conditioned to show aggressive behaviour.
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Intelligence (Animal Conditioning): Skinner’s Box (1938)
OPERANT CONDITIONING; behaviour shaping, chaining.
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Intelligence (Animal Conditioning): Fuij (2002)
(OC) Found that wild pigeons could be conditioned by placing the Skinner Box outside – lack of control?
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Intelligence (Animal Conditioning): Morrison (1988)
(OC) Reports that dolphins have been trained to guard the sea surrounding US nuclear submarine bases (practical application).
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Intelligence (Social Learning): Whiten (1999)
Found that differences in group size impact how animals use tools.
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Intelligence (Theory of Mind): Premack and Woodruff (1978)
Proposed TOM – Research has found that chimps are able to identify potential solutions to problems.
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Intelligence (Machiavellian): Whiten & Bryne (1998)
Intelligence animals can manipulate a situation without upsetting the social cohesion (use of deception): Female macaques have sex with the dominant male so he will protect newborns while having sex with other males as a ‘back-up plan’.
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Intelligence (Self Recognition): Gallup (1971)
Mirror test: odourless red spot painted on animal’s forehead whilst unconscious, degree of recognition measured.
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Intelligence (Evolutionary Theories - Ecological): Milton (1988)
FORAGING HYPOTHESIS: development of intelligence in frugivores (fruit eaters); food types widely distributed and seasonal = larger brains due to larger cognitive demand.
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Intelligence (Evolutionary Theories - Ecological): Milton (1988)
Found that frugivore spiders have a greater relative brain size – supports theory.
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Intelligence (Evolutionary Theories - Ecological): Barton (1996)
Fruit eating correlates positively with brain size in higher primates.
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Intelligence (Evolutionary Theories - Ecological): Dunbar (1992)
Found that there was no significant relationship between the percentage of fruit in an animal’s diet and brain size.
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Intelligence (Evolutionary Theories – Social Complexity): Ehmer et al. (2001)
Larger antennal lobes and collars found in female paper wasps (have no cortex) living in colonies rather than solitary – creates need to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Social complexity = Intelligence.
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Intelligence (Evolutionary Theories – Brain Size): Lynn (1989)
Showed from fossil evidence that brain size grew by 300% during the evolution of humans.
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Intelligence (Evolutionary Theories – Brain Size): Willerman et al. (1991)
Meta- analysis of brain size and IQ, positive correlation.
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Intelligence (Evolutionary Theories – Brain Size): Narr et al. (2006)
Found a positive relationship between IQ and cortical thickness.
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Intelligence (Environmental Factors): Flynn (1987, 1994)
THE FLYNN EFFECT; reported that across 20 different countries there has been a rise in IQ in recent decades (could be due to better education, nutrition ect).
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Intelligence (Environmental Factors): Sunder et al. (2004)
(FE) no further changes in IQ since the mid 1990’s – suggesting Flynn effect is coming to an end.
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Intelligence (Environmental Factors): Sameroff et al (1993)
Found 10 risk factors of low IQ.
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Intelligence (Environmental Factors): Gottfried (1984)
Meta-analysis, identified that provision of appropriate play materials, parental involvement with the child and daily stimulation were the best predictors of subsequent IQ.
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Intelligence (Environmental - Prenatal Factors): Mortenson et al. (2005)
Children of mother who smoked more than 20 cigarettes a day did badly on IQ tests at 18/19.
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Intelligence (Environmental - Prenatal Factors): Maltby et al. (2007)
Alcohol also can affect a child’s later IQ – can lead to FAS (Foetal Alcohol Syndrome).
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Intelligence (Environmental - Birth Order): Belmont and Morolla (1973)
386 19 year-old Dutch men, larger family = lower IQ scores, with first born children having higher IQ.
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Intelligence (Environmental - Enrichment Programmes): Head Start (1960s)
Provides additional educational help to deprived children in numeracy and literacy – initial gain in IQ, disappeared after 2-3 years.
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Intelligence (Environmental - Enrichment Programmes): Lazar and Darlington (1982)
Follow up studies of ‘Head Start’ – children more likely to graduate from high school.
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Intelligence (Environmental – Cultural Influences): Jensen (1969)
‘Genetics are important and that white participants are superior to black participants’ – socially sensitive.
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Intelligence (Environmental – Cultural Influences): Serpell (1979)
Compared English and Zambian children on two tasks, English better at drawing, Zambian better at wire shaping – variations in culture, due to a number of factors.
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Intelligence (Genetic Explanation): Plomin et al. (1998)
(Gene Mapping) Compared the DNA of children with high and average IQ, finding a variant of the IGF2 receptor gene more common in high IQ children, accounting for intellectual difference.
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Intelligence (Genetic Explanation): Lahn et al. (2004)
(Gene Mapping) Identified a gene ASPM linked to higher intelligence - affects the expansion of the cerebral cortex.
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Intelligence (Genetic Explanation):Capron and Duyme (1989)
(Adoption Studies) Children raised by high socio-economic status (SES) adoptive parents had higher IQ.
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Intelligence (Genetic Explanation): Scarr and Weinberg (1983)
(Adoption Studies) Found that black children adopted by white families scored above average and higher than non-adopted black children on IQ tests.
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Intelligence (Genetic Explanation): Newman et al. (1937)
(Twin Studies) Studied 100 pairs of MZ twins reared together and 19 MZ twins reared apart. Both kinds had a closer correlation than DZ twins.
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Intelligence (Genetic Explanation): Thompson et al. (2001)
(Twin Studies) MRI scans - found MZ twins had similar brain structures associated with intelligence.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

“The ability to learn from experience, think in abstract terms and deal effectively with one’s own environment”

Back

Intelligence (Definition): Smith et al. (2003)

Card 3

Front

Made to identify poor academic abilities, has been adapted a number of times.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Standardised test; assesses IQ and cognitive ability in 2-23 year olds - tests in 4 areas.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

TWO-FACTOR THEORY; specific abilities (s) and general intelligence (g)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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