In depth Triple Biology ( 2b)

  • Created by: HarveyCB
  • Created on: 15-09-18 12:10
What are diseases often responsible for
Causing ill health
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What is the definition of health
The state of physical and mental wellbeing
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What can cause further health complications
When different diseases interact
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What are the two types of disease
Communicable and non-communicable
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What are communicable diseases
Those that can spread between organisms (person to person)
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How are communicable diseases sometimes described
As contagious or infectious diseases
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Give some examples of things that can cause communicable diseases
Bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi
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What are non-communicable diseases
Those that cannot spread between people or between animals and people
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Describe some characteristics of a non-communicable disease
Generally they last for a long time and slowly get worse
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Give three examples of non-communicable diseases
Asthma, cancer and coronary heart disease
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What disease interaction can happen when someone is having issues with their immune system
They have an increased chance of suffering from a communicable disease like influenza (flu), because their body is less able to defend itself against the pathogen that causes it
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What can certain viruses trigger
Some types of cancer (hepatitis to liver cancer, HPV to cervical cancer)
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What can certain immune system reactions to pathogens cause
Allergic reactions, or worsened asthma symptoms for asthma sufferers
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What can certain severe physical health problems cause
Mental health problems such as depression, especially when they affect a person's life expectancy or ability to carry out everyday activities
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What are other factors that affect health
Diet, stress and life situation (access to medicine/disease prevention)
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What is cardiovascular disease
A blanket term used to describe diseases of the heart or blood vessels
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What is a common example of cardiovascular disease
Coronary heart disease
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What is coronary heart disease
When the coronary arteries get blocked by layers of fatty build-up, resulting in lack of oxygen to the heart muscles
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What are the coronary arteries
The arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle
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What can coronary heart disease result in
A heart attack
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How can cardiovascular disease be treated
Stents, statins, artificial hearts, replacement heart valves and artificial blood
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What are stents
Wire mesh tubes that are inserted into arteries to widen them and keep them open
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When are stents useful and why
With coronary heart disease, as they make sure blood can pass to the heart muscles, keeping the heart beating, and the person alive
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What are the advantages of stents
They lower the risk of heart attacks, are effective from a long time, and have a relatively quick surgery recovery time
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What are the disadvantages of stents
Risk of surgical complications (heart attack during surgery or infection), or a blood clot near the stent (thrombosis)
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What are statins
Drugs that can reduce the amount of 'bad' cholesterol in the bloodstream
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What is the official name for 'bad' cholesterol
LDL cholesterol
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What do build-ups of 'bad' cholesterol form
Fatty deposits in the arteries that can lead to coronary heart disease
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What is cholesterol
An essential lipid your body produces and needs to function properly
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What do statins do by lowering the LBD in the bloodstream
Slow the rate of fatty deposits forming
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What are the advantages of statins
They reduce the risks of strokes, coronary heart disease and heart attacks. They also may increase production of 'good' cholesterol, and prevent some other diseases
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What is the official name of 'good' cholesterol
HDL cholesterol
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What are the disadvantages of statins
Someone may forget to take their regular dose, they have negative side effects, they don't affect the body instantly
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What are the side effects of statins
Headaches, and more rarely, kidney failure, liver damage and memory loss
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What are artificial hearts
Mechanical devices that are used as a temporary solution when a donor isn't available, or as a permanent solution
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Why are heart transplants used
When the patient has experienced a heart failure, or during a heart and lung transplant when the patient has diseased lungs
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Why is using artificial hearts as a permanent solution a good idea
It lowers the need for donors
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Give an example of an artificial heart
The SynCardia Total Artificial Heart. It kept a patient alive for 1374 days (nearly 4 years) before they were able to have a transplant
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What are the advantages of artificial hearts
Less likely to be rejected by the body's immune system, as the body does not recognise them as foreign tissues (they're metal and plastic)
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What are the disadvantages of artificial hearts
Surgery complications (infection and bleeding), the heart could wear out, blood clots leading to strokes, uncomfortable for the patient
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How do doctors solve the problem of blood clots and why is this dangerous
They are given drugs to thin the blood and prevent clots, which is dangerous if they are hurt in an accident as the wound can't clot
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What is a stroke
Where the blood supply to the brain is cut off, sometimes because of blood clots
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What are replacement heart valves
Exactly what it says, a replacement valve
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What are the two types of replacement heart valve
Biological (taken from donors or animals like cows and pigs), or mechanical (man-made)
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Why are replacement valves needed
When the valves have been damaged or weakened (heart attacks, old age or infection)
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What does valve damage cause
The valve tissue becomes stiff so it does not open properly, or leaky, allowing blood to flow in both directions
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What are the advantages of replacement heart valves
It is a much less drastic procedure than a whole heart transplant
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What are the disadvantages of artificial heart valves
It is still major surgery and can have complications like blood clots
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What is artificial blood
A blood substitute like saline (salt solution), which is safe as long as there are no air bubbles
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Why is artificial blood used
When someone loses a lot of blood, their heart can still pump remaining red blood cells (and therefore oxygen) around the body, if the volume of their blood is topped up
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What is the limit of artificial blood
It can be used to keep people alive even if they lose 2/3 of their red blood cells, giving them time to produce more
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What if the patient does not produce enough new red blood cells
They need a blood transfusion
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What are scientists working on
Artificial blood that can replace the function of red blood cells
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What are risk factors
Things linked to an increase in the likelihood a person will develop a certain disease
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What do risk factors not guarantee
That the person will get the disease
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What are types of things are risk factors
Aspects of a person's lifestyle, presence of substances in the environment, or substances in your body
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Give an example of substances in the environment that are risk factors
Air pollution
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Give an example of substances in your body that are risk factors
Asbestos fibres
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What is asbestos
A material used in buildings before it was linked to diseases such as cancer due to build up in airways
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Are non-communicable diseases caused by one risk factor
No, often they are caused by several interacting with one another
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What affects the impact of risk factor
Situation locally, nationally and globally
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Give an example of nationally different risk factors
In developed countries non communicable diseases are more common as general income is higher and people can buy high fat foods
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Give an example of locally different risk factors
People from deprived areas are more likely to smoke, have poor diet and not exercise, increasing risks of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes
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What affects the local incidence of disease
Your individual choices
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What is smoking a risk factor for
Cardiovascular disease, lung disease and lung cancer
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Why is smoking a risk factor
It damages the walls of arteries and cells in the lining of the lungs
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What is obesity a risk factor for
Type 2 diabetes
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Why is obesity a risk factor
It makes the body less sensitive to insulin, so it struggles go control blood glucose levels
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What is drinking a risk factor for
Liver disease, or damaged brain function
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Why is alcohol a risk factor for liver disease
When the liver breaks down alcohol it can damage the cells, which can also happen when toxic chemicals are leaked from the gut due to intestinal damage by alcohol
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Why is alcohol a risk factor for brain damage
It can damage the nerve cells in the brain, decreasing brain volume
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What is smoking/drinking when pregnant a risk factor for
Health problems for the fetus
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Why is smoking when pregnant a risk factor
It cuts off oxygen to the baby
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Why is drinking when pregnant a risk factor
It damages the baby's cells, affecting its development
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What are risk factors for cancers
Carcinogens or radiation
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What are carcinogens
Things that cause cancer
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Give an example of a carcinogen
Ionizing radiation that damage a cells DNA, causing it to divide uncontrollably
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What is correlation not causation
When two variables appear to be linked, but they do not directly affect one another
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Give an example of correlation not causation
A lack of exercise and high fat diet correlates to a person's chances of cardiovascular disease, but the causation is actually high blood pressure and high LDL cholesterol level
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What is the human cost of non-communicable diseases
The tens of millions that die from them around the world each year
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What is the financial cost of non-communicable diseases
The cost to the NHS for researching and treatment is huge, and families have to change their homes to help a family member, while perhaps having lost a source of income. It also decreases the world's workforce
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What is cancer
Uncontrolled cell growth and division, resulting in a tumour
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What are the two types of tumour
Benign and malignant
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Describe a benign tumour
It grows until there is no more room, it stays in one place (usually within a membrane), isn't normally dangerous, and isn't cancerous
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Describe a malignant tumour
It spreads to neighbouring healthy tissues, and can travel through the blood stream to form secondary tumour elsewhere. They are dangerous and sometimes fatal, and are cancerous
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Who can develop cancer
Anyone
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Why have cancer survival rates increased
Medical advances (improved treatment, earlier diagnosis, and increased screening)
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What are the two things risk factors are associated with
Your lifestyle, and your genetics
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List some lifestyle risk factors for cancer
Smoking, obesity, UV exposure and viral infection
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Which cancers is smoking a risk factor for
Lung, mouth, bowel, stomach and cervical cancer
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Which cancers is obesity a risk factor for
Bowel, liver and kidney cancer. It is the second biggest preventable cause of cancer after smoking
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Which cancer is UV exposure a risk factor for
Skin cancer
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Give an example of a virus and a cancer it is a risk factor for
Hepatitis B and C are risk factors for liver cancer
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Give an example of a genetic risk factor for cancer
Mutations/faulty genes
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Which cancer are mutations in the BRCA genes risk factors for
Breast and ovarian cancer
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the definition of health

Back

The state of physical and mental wellbeing

Card 3

Front

What can cause further health complications

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the two types of disease

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are communicable diseases

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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