In depth Triple Biology (1a)

  • Created by: HarveyCB
  • Created on: 08-09-18 10:13
What are cells
The building blocks of all organisms
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What are the two main types of cells
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic
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Describe a eukaryotic cell
Complex, and includes all plant and animal cells
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Describe a prokaryotic cell
Small and simple, includes bacteria cells
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What is a eukaryote
An organism made up of eukaryotic cells
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What is a prokaryote
A single-celled organism made up of a prokaryotic cell
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What is the scientific term for cell parts
Subcellular structures
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List the five subcellular structures of an animal cell
Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes
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Describe the nucleus
Contains genetic material that controls the activities of the cell
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Describe cytoplasm
A gel-like substance where most of the chemicals reactions take place. It contains the enzymes which can control these reactions
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Describe the cell membrane
Holds the cell together and controls what goes in or out
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Describe the mitochondria
Where most of the reactions for aerobic respiration take place
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Describe ribosomes
Where proteins are made within the cell
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List the three subcellular structures unique to plant and algal cells
Cell wall, permanent vacuole, chloroplasts
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Describe a cell wall
A rigid structure made of cellulose, that supports and strengthens the cell
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Describe the permanent vacuole
Contains cell sap, a weak solution of sugar and salt
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Describe chloroplasts
Where photosynthesis occurs, which makes food for the plant
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What do chloroplasts contain
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Describe chlorophyll
A green substance which absorbs the light needed for photosynthesis
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What subcellular structures do bacterial cells have in common with eukaryotic cells
Cytoplasm, cell membrane, ribosomes and a cell wall
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What do bacterial cells not have
A ‘true’ nucleus
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How is DNA stored in a bacterial cell
A single circular strand in the cytoplasm, and small rings of DNA known as plasmids
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What part of an animal cell controls it’s activities
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Where do most chemical reactions take place in a cell
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What are mitochondria needed for
Aerobic respiration
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What is microscopy
The study of very small objects, using a microscope
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What is a plasmid
A small ring of DNA found in bacterial cells
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What do microscopes allow us to see
What we can't with the naked eye (cells, subcellular structures)
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What are two common types of microscope
Light and electron
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What is a light microscope
A microscope that uses light and lenses to form and image of a specimen and magnify it
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What do light microscopes allow us to see
Individual cells and large subcellular structures (nuclei)
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What is an electron microscope
A microscope that uses electrons to form and magnify an image
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What do electron microscopes allow us to see
The internal structure of mitochondria and chloroplasts, as well as smaller things like ribosomes and plasmids
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What is resolution
The ability to distinguish between two points, so a higher resolution means a sharper image
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Why are electron microscopes better
They have a higher magnification and resolution
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What is a slide
A rectangle of clear glass or plastic onto which a specimen is mounted
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What would you add to a clean slide before a specimen
A drop of water
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In the textbooks microscope example, what tissue was used
An onions epidermal tissue
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In the textbooks microscope example, what stain was used
Iodine solution
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Why are stains used with light microscopes
To highlight objects in a cell by adding colour to them
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What is iodine solution used to stain
Starch in plant cells
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What is eosin used to stain
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What is placed over the specimen on a slide
A cover slip
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Describe a cover slip
A thin square of transparent plastic or glass
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How would you correctly apply the cover slip
Stand it upright next to the specimen, before slowly tilting it onto the slide
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What should never be under the cover slip
Air bubbles
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What is the coarse adjustment knob
The knob used to adjust the level of the stage
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What is the fine adjustment knob
The knob used to adjust the lens focus
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What is the stage
What the slide is clipped to for observation
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What do you call the lenses
High and low power objective lenses
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How do you increase the magnification
Switch to a higher power objective lens
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What should drawings of specimens be done with
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What must a drawing of a specimen not include
Colouring or shading
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What must be included in a drawing of a specimen
Labels and a title
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What is the equation for image size
Magnification x real size
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What units should the real and image size be in
Does not matter, as long as it is the same
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What is a micrometre in millimetres
0.001 mm
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What is a nanometre in millimetres
0.000001 mm
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How would you estimate the size of a subcellular structure
By comparing its size to that of the cell
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How would you calculate the area of a subcellular structure
By comparing its area to that of a regular shape
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What is a specialised cell
One that performs a specific function
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What are unspecialised cells called
Stem cells
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What is cell differentiation
The process in which a cell specialises by developing different subcellular structures
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When does most differentiation occur
As a cell develops
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What is different about differentiated animal and plant cells
Most animal cells lose the ability to differentiate after they have specialised, unlike plant cells, which retain it
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Cells that differentiate in mature animals are mostly used for what?
Repairing and replacing cells such as skin or blood cells
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List 6 examples of specialised cells
Sperm, nerve, muscle, root hair, phloem and xylem cells
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How are sperm cells specialised
Long tail and streamlined head (for swimming), lots of mitochondria (for energy) , and enzymes concentrated in the head (to digest the egg cell membrane)
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How are nerve cells specialised
Long (to cover distance), with branched connections (to connect to other nerve cells)
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Why are less long nerve cells better than more short nerve cells
The electrical messages slowed down between cells
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How are muscle cells specialised
They are long (space to contract) and contain lots of mitochondria (energy for contraction)
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How are root hair cells specialised
Big surface area (maximum absorption) and a thin cell membrane (faster absorption)
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What do root hair cells not contain
Chloroplasts, as they are underground
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How are phloem and xylem cells specialised
They join at the ends to form tubes (too transport substances), and xylem is hollow, while phloem has very little subcellular structures
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What is stored in the nucleus
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How many chromosome pairs do most humans have
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Where do humans get half of their chromosome copies from
One of their parents
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What molecules makes up chromosomes
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How does DNA form chromosomes
In tight coils
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What is a gene
A short section of DNA
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What do genes control
The development of different characteristics
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What is the cell cycle
A series of stages in a cells life
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When does the cell cycle begin and end
When a new cell is produced by division, and when the cells divides to form two identical cells
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What are the two main stages
Cell growth and DNA replication, and mitosis
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What is mitosis
When a cell reproduces itself by splitting to form two identical offspring
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What is mitosis used for in multicellular organisms
To grow and develop, or replace damaged cells
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What state is the DNA in, in a cell that is not dividing
Long strings
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What does a cell have to do before it divides
Increase the number of subcellular structures (mitochondria and ribosomes), and duplicate its DNA to form x shaped chromosmes
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Explain a x shaped chromosome
Each arm is an exact duplicate of the other
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What pulls apart the arms of x shaped chromosomes in mitosis
Cell fibres
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What happens to the two arms of the chromosome after being split
They go to opposite ends of the cell
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What forms around each set of chromosomes in mitosis
Membranes, forming the new nuclei
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What is the last stage in mitosis
The division of the cytoplasm and cell membrane
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How would you calculate the length of a stage in the cell cycle
Observe how many of the cells are in that stage, write it as a fraction of the overall amount of cells, and multiply it by the length of the cell cycle
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What is binary fission
The prokaryotic method of cell division
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What do you call the result of binary fission
Daughter cells
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What is the first step of binary fission
The circular DNA and plasmid(s) replicate
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What is the second step of binary fission
The cell expands and the DNA strands move to opposite poles of the cell
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What is step three of binary fission
The cytoplasm begins to divide and new cell walls form
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What is the final step of binary fission
The cytoplasm divides and the daughter cells are produced. Each has one copy of the DNA strand
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Why might daughter cells not be identical
The plasmids were not evenly distributed between them
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What bacteria would be able to replicate in was little as twenty minutes
E. coli
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What would you use to estimate the number of bacteria in a population
The mean division time
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How would you estimate the number of cells in a population
Two to the power of (the given time divided by the mean division time)
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What must be insured when estimating the cell population size
That the given time and the mean division time are in the same units
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What is the scientific term for growing bacteria
Culturing microorganisms (may refer to microorganisms besides bacteria)
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What is a culture medium
A mixture of carbohydrates, minerals, proteins and vitamins used to grow cells
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Name two examples of culture medium
Nutrient broth solution or agar jelly
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In schools what temperature are cultures kept below
25 degrees celsius, to avoid the growth of harmful pathogens
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Why in industrial settings are cultures incubated at higher temperatures
To increase the growth rate
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In the textbooks example, what are the microorganisms grown on
A Petri dish filled with agar jelly (agar plates)
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How are the agar plates prepared
Hot agar jelly is poured into the Petri dish
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How can microorganisms be transferred to the petri dish
Via inoculating loops or a sterile dropping pipette and spreader
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How would you sterilize an inoculating loop
By passing it through a hot flame
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Why must the lid of the dish be taped on
To prevent microorganisms on the air getting in
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Why must the Petri dish be stored upside down
To prevent drops of condensation falling onto the agar surface
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How would you sterilize the Petri dish and culture medium
By heating them to a high temperature
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What is an autoclave
A method of sterilization that steams equipment at a high pressure
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Why should you not fully seal the Petri dish before storage
To allow oxygen in
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In the textbooks example, how long should you leave the plate for
48 hours at 25 degrees celsius
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Why would you calculate the area of inhibition zones
To compare the effectiveness of antiseptic or antibiotics
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What is the equation for the area of an inhibition zone
Pi x radius squared (also the area of a circle)
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What is the process of a stem cell producing another stem cell
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What is the process of a stem cell producing a specialised cell
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Where are stem cells found
Early human embryos and bone marrow
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Why are stem cells from adults less versatile
They come for bone marrow and can only be used to make certain cells, like blood cells
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Why do doctors prefer embryonic stem cells
They can turn into any specialized cell
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What are stem cells grown to produce in a lab
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Why are stem cell clones used
For medical use or research
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Give an example of how adult stem cells are used
To help people with blood diseases (like sickle cell anaemia)
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Give two examples of how embryonic stem cells are used
To replace damaged spinal tissue in paralysed patients (nerve cells) or to replace faulty insulin producing cells in the diabetic
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What is therapeutic cloning
An embryo is made to have the same genetic information as the patient, to prevent the body rejecting replacement cells
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What are the risks of stem cells
Cells grown in a lab may be contaminated, and then pass on a virus to a sick patient
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What are the arguments that stem cell research is unethical
That embryos are potential human lives, and they should not be used for experiments
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What is the argument that stem cell research isn't unethical
The embryos used are usually unwanted ones from fertility clinics which would otherwise be destroyed
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Are there alternatives to stem cell research
Scientists are attempting to find other sources, but they would need to pass tests ensuring safe usage in medical treatments
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Is stem cell research legal in the uk
Yes, but it must follow strict guidelines. It is banned in several other countries
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What may be a possible source of embryonic stem cells
Specialised adult cells that may be reprogrammed back to an undifferentiated stage
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Where are stem cells found in plants
In the meristems (shoots and roots)
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What is special about plant stem cells
They can differentiate into anything throughout the plants whole life
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What can plant stem cells be used for
Producing clones
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What can plant clones be used for
Growing crops of plants with desired features, or preventing extinction of a plants species
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the two main types of cells


Prokaryotic and eukaryotic

Card 3


Describe a eukaryotic cell


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Describe a prokaryotic cell


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a eukaryote


Preview of the front of card 5
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