IGCSE Biology Plant Nutrition and Transport

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What is the chemical and word equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + Water -----> Glucose + Oxygen . 6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
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Where does photosynthesis happen?
Inside the chloroplasts in the cell
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What is a limiting factor?
A limiting factor means something which stops a process from happening any faster.
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Explain how light intensity affects the rate of photosynthesis
If this is increased, the rate of photosynthesis will increase up to a certain point, until temperature or carbon dioxide levels are now the limiting factor.
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Explain how carbon dioxide affects the rate of photosynthesis
A similar pattern to light intensity: If it is increased, the rate will correspond, until light and temperature are limiting factors.
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Explain how temperature affects the rate of photosynthesis
As it increases, so does the rate of photosynthesis up to a certain point, unless it is too hot, and the enzymes involved become de-natured.
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On which graph will the curve increase, peak and decrease?
TEMPERATURE
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How do you test a leaf for starch?
1) place leaf into boiling water, so no chemical reactions continue. 2)place leaf into tube with ethanol, position into a water bath, which removes chlorophyll and makes it pale. 3) Rinse the leaf in cold water and add some iodine solution.
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What colour in the test will indicate the presence of starch?
Blue/black
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How can you can prove that chlorophyll is needed for photosynthesis?
by taking a variegated leaf which has been exposed to sunlight, and recording which parts are green or not. Then complete the starch test and record which parts contain starch
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How can you can prove that light is needed for photosynthesis?
by placing it in a cupboard, and starch is not produced.
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How can you can prove that carbon dioxide is needed for photosynthesis?
by leaving a plant inside a sealed bell jar with soda lime which aborbs CO2. Shine a light through the jar and leave it. When you test the leaves, they should show no starch.
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What do plants need nitrates for?
they contain nitrogen, so therefore nitrates are used to make proteins in plants. Therefore there is cell growth. Without nitrates, the plant will become stunted with yellow leaves.
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What do plants need phosphates for?
phosphorus is needed to make DNA and cell membranes. They are also needed for respiration and growth. Without this mineral, plants have purple leaves and bad root growth.
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What do plants need Potassium for?
helps the enzymes which are needed for respiration. Without it, the plant has discoloured leaves and poor fruit growth.
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What do plants need Magnesium for?
is only needed in small amounts, but is required to make chlorophyll. Without it, the plant has yellow leaves.
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What experiment can test the rate of photosynthesis?
You can measure the vol of oxygen given from Candian pondweed, to show the rate of photosynthesis. The plant is left for a set time, and after, the vol of oxygen is recorded. the lamp is moved away/closer to the plant each time by an equal distance.
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Why do multicellular organisms need transport systems?
Multicellular organisms need transport systems , to receive a variety of required nutrients such as water, but also to get rid of waste substances. In unicellular organisms, products can directly diffuse in/out of the membrane.
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What does the XYLEM do?
carries water and mineral salts from the roots, and up the shoot to leaves. (transpiration stream.)
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What does the PHLOEM do?
The Phloem transports nutrients such as sucrose and amino acids from the leaves where they are made, to the other parts of the plant. This movement is called translocation.
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What are adaptations of a root hair cell?
root hairs take in minerals by active transport, and water by osmosis. The cells on the plant root grow into long hairs, and each branch is covered in millions of these microscopic hairs. the plant has a larger surface area for absorbing water.
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What is transpiration?
the loss of water from a plant, and is caused by evaporation and diffusion from a plant's surface, (mostly at the leaves.) This process results in a water shortage in the plant, and as a response, more water is drawn up through the xylem tissue.
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How does light intensity affect the transpiration rate? How could you show this?
A brighter light results in a higher rate. The stomata close when it is dark, as they cannot photosynthesise. When they are closed, little water escapes. YOU COULD USE A POTOMETER IN A CUPBOARD/BRIGHT LIGHT
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How does temperature affect the transpiration rate? How could you show this?
when warmer, the rate is faster. The atoms evaporate faster. YOU COULD PUT IT IN A HOTTER/COLDER ENVIRONMENT THAN THE CONTROL
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How does wind speed affect the transpiration rate? How could you show this?
higher wind speed results in a higher rate. The wind removes the water vapour from outside, meaning there is a steeper concentration gradient, and faster diffusion. YOU COULD USE A FAN WITH THE POTOMETER
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How does humidity affect the transpiration rate? How could you show this?
The drier the air, the faster the rate. When there is a greater difference between humidity inside and outside the plant, diffusion is faster. YOU COULD SPRAY WATER VAPOUR IN THE POTOMETER EXPERIMENT
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Explain a potometer
Potometers measure the water uptake of a plant to estimate the loss of water through transpiration.
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Explain the potometer experiment
Cut shoot underwater, at angle to prevent air from entering the xylem. Assemble apparatus in water, so no air enters. Dry eaves, then shut the tap to water reservoir. Remove capillary tube from beaker until ONE bubble has formed.
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How do you record from the potometer?
Record the starting position of the bubble, start a stopwatch , and record the distance moved by the bubble.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where does photosynthesis happen?

Back

Inside the chloroplasts in the cell

Card 3

Front

What is a limiting factor?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain how light intensity affects the rate of photosynthesis

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain how carbon dioxide affects the rate of photosynthesis

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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