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Which countries made cheaper goods than UK
JPN, USA
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Worst hit areas UK by GD
Overall: Traditional industries e.g. iron textiles mining and shipbuilding :: 1) Coal, as cheaper abroad, 2) Iron and Steel - more efficient but still cheaper abroad 3) Cotton > Indian boycott
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What % of UK Workforce in Coal
9%
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Winners of GD
Chemical industry, motor industry (1920: 30 000 cars vs 1939 2 million), aviation as knew it was to be weapon of the future.
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Impact of GD on working class
1) Unemployment 2) Housing -12% lived 2 to a room 3) Health higher infant mortality rate, 1 in 3 school children seen as physically unfit 4) Socially, poor diets due to poverty, women first to be sacked and nI only covered men
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4x responses to GD
1) Dole 2) Means test 3) Unemployment assistance board 4) Special areas act
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Means test:
through investigation into finance (income, savings) to see if govt could dock dole, children paper rounds docked, jewellery docked
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Unemployment assistance board
Ran labour exchanges, dole, means test. Set up training schemes and helped people find work.
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Special areas act
Identified poorest areas and tried to invest money into projects there. Limited success, due to limited investment, as money went to preparing for war.
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Jarrow Crusade
//
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Where is it
NE upon River Tyne
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Name of shipyard and date closed
Palmer's Shipyard 1935
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% of town who became unemployed
70%
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% of shops closed
50% or 1/2
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How many signed jarrow petition
11 000
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How many marched
200 unemployed men
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How far marched
300 miles
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When marched
October 1936
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Did not..
align with any other protests
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Received lots of
Northern support, e.g. train ticket back paid for, sheltered, clothes repaired, given food
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Wore
smart clothes only all family contributed
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MP for Jarrow
Ellen Wilkinson
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Government response to petition
Made no promises, went home by train empty handed. Marchers' dole docked. Not receive support in South.
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Dunkirk event
Allies retreated from advancing German army, situation grim
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Dunkirk evacuation date
May and Jun 1940
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Cause of Dunkirk
Alien troops were trapped by German army, Stuka bombers pounded allied troops and equipment. Hitler suddenly paused giving time to evacuate.
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Failures of Dunkirk:
//
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How many left behind as PoW
300 000
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BEF was
driven out of Europe, and French left to fight alone
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Equipment was
left behind and captures or destroyed. Al
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Dunkirk successes;
Was well organised, and small boats joined in
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how many rescued
330 000 British 10 000 French
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How many rescued by boats
80 000
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RAF Success
outfought Luftwaffe
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BoB
/
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German planes
Messerschmitt 109
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RAF planes
Hurricanes, Spitfires
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Date of BoB
July 1940, were series of battles day after day. Waves of German bombers attacked British targets
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In september..
Luftwaffe changed tactics, bombing London, which gave RAF breathing space.
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How many British aircraft destroyed
1116
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How many German aircraft destroyed
1660
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Blitz
for next 8 months British cities bombed
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Reasons for British win:
1) GB had radar, were superior, 2) RAF fought in regions so quicker scramble, 3) RAF pilots bailed out over Britain and returned to duty 4) Superior tech, e.g. bulletproof windscreens 5) Superior commander 6) German planes not enough fuel
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AIR FORCE: British leader was better than German leader, names
Goring vs hugh dowding
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D-Day date
June 1944
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Operation name
Overlord
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Aim
to liberate France
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Allied preparation
1) Decoys, deception, and false radio messages - Germans thought attack would be at Calais 2) Turned German agents into double agents to feed wrong information 3) Bombed bridges way from invasion to confuse 4) Built PLUTO
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Allied attack
Took place on several beaches supported by paratroopers and gliders
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How many went across channel
130 000
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How many by air
23 000
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floating harbours called..
mulberries
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Allies had
air superiority
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How was air superiority used
to bomb factories, supplies, vehicles and trains
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Resistance fighters..
disrupted communications and destroyed supplies
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Another reason for D-Day loss
Soviet advance from East
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Casualty of D-day for allies
almost 12 000
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4 reasons for German loss
1) D-Day; lost stronghold in Europe and gave allied forces ability to re-enter France
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2
Russian invasion from East, splitting army in half. 1944 no remaining soldiers in Russia.
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3
Battle of Bulge: Germany's last push for victory. Ordered attack in ardennes in woody hilly area. US forces were weak and Panzers made bulge. But Panzers low on petrol and ammunition. Allies able to halt it.
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4
Battle of Britain; didn't get to capture Britain lost vital resources and meant they had to turn to USSR before they were ready
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Casualties of the Blitz
32 000 killed 87 000 injured.
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How many houses destroyed
2 million (60% in London)
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Hit cities
Coventry, London, Manchester, Liverpool
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How many bombs dropped on London during blitz
30 000
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Types of ammunition
incendiary bombs, high explosives
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Shelters
Morrison shelters given free to poorer families, fitted under a table. Anderson- dug into garden. London tube stations.
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Govt solutions to Blitz:
4 of them
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1
Black out - bombers couldn't see from air. Streetlights not lit. Cars driven without lights.
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How many died due to black out
1500 on roads
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Restrictions were
relaxed later in the war. Torches could be used and drivers used dimmed headlights.
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Kerbs were pained
black and white
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2
MOI; poster campaign, told people what could and couldn't do. Campaigned to get people to grow food, mend old clothes, not have open discussions in public. Dig For Victory and encouraged allotments. Kept morale high
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3: Grow your own
1.6 million kept allotments by 1943, encouraged by dig for victory. Tower of London moat.
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4
Rationing: ID Cards and coupons. Points system to keep food prices down. People turned lawns into vegetable gardens. Pig clubs. Healthier and more balanced diet, mothers given juice and milk. BUT there was a black market.
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Evacuations introduced
1st September 1939 - 1 million went and many returned due to the PHONEY WAR
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second wave of evacuations began
1940 and then again in 1944
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Life of evacuee
Some beaten, malnourished, and expected to contribute with chores
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Conditions
Mixed. Chosen by families like cattle. Homesickness, families split up. Some made to work, and bullied, some given better standard of living due to country life.
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Women in factories properly organised in
1941: forced to register for work
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In aircraft factories they worked
16 hour days
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most women worked in
munitions
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Land army; how many volunteered
80 000
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Problems land army
poor pay, had no choice where to work, sen too remote areas in poor conditions
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How many million extra hectares ploughed
11 million
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WRNS and WAAF
Women Royal Naval Services and Women's Auxiliary Air Force
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What did they do
routine jobs, freeing men. Driving and domestic duties. Dispatch riders. Intelligence, e.g. codebreakers. Drove convoys.
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How many WRNS/WAAF died and wounded
335 killed 300 wounded
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Amt of women involved in home front war effort total
by 1943: 17million women 14-64 in war related work. || by 1944: 450 000 in services,
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Leaders of labour party after WW1
Clement Attlee, (Ernst Bevin high profile)
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Labour after WW1 was
united but became divided during 1930s
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Labour supported by
Working class, and armed forces vote. Supported by trade unions.
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Who against labour
Conservatives, big business, anti-Communist, anti-socialist
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Reasons why Labour won the 1945 general election
4
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Impact of WWII
Wartime experiences. Fought with Americans. Americans treated soldiers equally, w/out class system. Evacuees experiences showed extent of poverty. Housing unacceptable: labour promised new houses under beveridge report, and promised NHS
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Promises of labour
NHS housing education employment nationalisation of Bank of England 'Never Again'
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Gestapo speech
Churchill attacked labour: claimed they'd take away democracy and bring in secret police, which was deemed insensitive and lost him support
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Tories too old fashioned
Not modernised, no NHS, focussed on the past, people wanted to forget/move on. Churchill was not a peacetime leader.
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Beveridge Report:
/
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5 giants:
1) Ignorance 2) Want 3) Squalor 4) Idleness 5) Disease
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Published when
December 1942
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How many copies sold
635 000 within weeks.
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How many wanted proposals to be carried out
9/10 people.
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Importance:
Meant people trusted and voted for Labour, especially with promise of NHS which Tories refused.
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NHS impact
Gave free pubic comprehensive healthcare. Free prescription, dental, optical care. GPs and coordinated hospitals centrally.
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Who set up NHS
Bevin - met with stiff opposition but NHS was his legacy and passion
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Opposition from Doctors:
Wanted to practice privately. BMA fought for independence.
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When balloted what % of Drs wanted to remain independent
84%
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Agreement made
Allowed to continue to have private practices.
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How many enrolled by 1948
93% of people
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First year costs (1946)
£248 million
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How many people issued glasses
5 million
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how many prescriptions issued in 1951
229 million
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1949 costs of NHS
£280 million (double expected)
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What happened to NHS 1951
charges for dental and prescriptions introduced. Bevan resigned: tories kept it.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Worst hit areas UK by GD

Back

Overall: Traditional industries e.g. iron textiles mining and shipbuilding :: 1) Coal, as cheaper abroad, 2) Iron and Steel - more efficient but still cheaper abroad 3) Cotton > Indian boycott

Card 3

Front

What % of UK Workforce in Coal

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Winners of GD

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Impact of GD on working class

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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