Human Biology Unit 2

What is a gamete?
A sex cell, formed from germline cells
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What are the two functions of the testes?
Sperm Production and Testosterone Production
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Where are sperm cells produced?
Tubes called seminiferous tubules
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Why do seminiferous tubules connect to the sperm duct (vas deferens)?
To allow sperm to pass to the penis
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What produces testosterone?
The interstitial cells
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Where are interstitial cells found?
The tissue between the seminiferous tubules
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How does testosterone get to target tissues?
It passes into the blood stream
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What is the purpose of the accessory glands?
To bring about production of semen
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Name the two important accessory glands
The seminal vesicles and the prostate gland
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What does the seminal vesicle do?
Produces liquid rich in fructose which gives sperm energy to swim and prostaglandins which cause contractions of female reproductive tract so sperm reaches oviduct faster.
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What does the prostate gland secrete?
A lubricating fluid which contains enzymes to keep fluid at correct viscosity so sperm can swim
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What is semen and it's function?
It contains sperm from testes and fluid secretions from seminal vesicles and prostate gland. It maintains motablitily and viability of sperm.
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Give examples of adaptation to sperm
Acrosome contains enzymes which digest egg cell membrane, tail has many mitochondria so has energy to swim
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Where are ova (eggs) produced?
Germline cells, in ovaries
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Functions of the ovaries?
Production of ova and of female sex hormones
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*** many immature follicles does the average ovary have?
300,000 - the number is reduced at an accelerating rate towards menopausewhen ovulation ceases
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How often does an ovum mature inside a follicle?
On average every 28 days
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What is ovulation?
When the follicle ruptures at the surface of the ovary and the ovum is released
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What happens after ovulation?
ovum passes into oviduct where it may be fertilised
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Which hormone does the protective follicle around the egg secrete?
Oestrogen
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What does an increase in FSH trugger at the start of ovulation?
It triggers growth of a primordial follicle which then matures
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What is a follicle called at the point of maturation?
A graafian follicle
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What happens when the graafian follicle bursts?
Ova is released from ovary
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What does the follicle develop into after ovulation?
The corpus luteum (which secretes hormone progesterone)
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Is ovulation a cycle?
yes
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Definition of FSH?
A hormone that stimulates the development of a immature ova
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Definition of graafian follicle?
Structure that protects maturing ova and releases oestrogen
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What are the two fates for an ova following fertilisation?
Fertilisation or removal from body
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What is fertilisation?
When the egg meets a sperm in the oviduct and their nuclei fuse to form a zygote?
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When happens (initially) after the fertilised cell repeatedly divides?
It forms a blastocyst which is a ball of cells which eventually implants into the endometrium of the uterus
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What is formed when the blastocyst continually divides?
An embryo
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What happens if there is no fertilisation?
Hormones that would sustain the embryo and the embryo itself will not be produced, the endometrium lining and unfertilised ova are shed
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What is puberty?
The sequence of physical changes by which the human body develops from that of a child to that of an adult capable of reproduction
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Definition of hormones
Chemical messengers, produced by endocrine glands, secreted directly into the bloodstream
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Which gland produces many hormones including FSH, LH and ICSH
The pituitary gland
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What are the two most important glands in the body?
The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus
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The general roles of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus?
Regulating temperature, regulating water concentration. controlling growth and many more
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At puberty what does the hypothalamus secrete which targets the pituitary gland?
A releaser hormone
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What does the releaser hormone cause the pituitary to produce?
FSH and ICSH (men) or LH(women) (ICSH and LH are the same hormone there are just female and male versions
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What does the hormones FSH and ICSH trigger in males?
Both trigger The onset of sperm production and ICSH stimulates release of testosterone
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What do the hormones LH and FSH trigger in females?
Both- the onset of the menstruation cycle. They stimulate production of oestrogen although LH also prompts the corpus luteum to release progesterone after ovulation
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Which hormones in males and females trigger the physical and psychological changes of puberty
Oestrogen in females, Testosterone in males
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What are some examples of changes in puberty?
Growth and transformation of bones, muscle, skin, hair, breasts,sex organs and brain
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the two functions of the testes?

Back

Sperm Production and Testosterone Production

Card 3

Front

Where are sperm cells produced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do seminiferous tubules connect to the sperm duct (vas deferens)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What produces testosterone?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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