How was British society changed? (1890-1918) - Specific Knowledge & Statistics

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What was the Poor Law and when was it introduced?
Introduced in 1834 - reduced costs of looking after the poor and introduced workhouses with awful conditions, so that only the desperate would work there; people believed the poor were lazy
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How many of the men that volunteered to fight in the Boer War were malnourished, and how many were unfit to fight?
Half of the men were malnourished, and 2/3 were unfit to fight
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According to Charles Booth's investigation, how many in London were in severe poverty?
30% of London in severe poverty
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According to Seebohm Rowntree's investigation, how many in York were unable to afford basic food and clothing?
28% of York unable to afford basic food and clothing
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What is the difference between primary and secondary poverty, as discovered by Rowntree?
Primary: lacking basic resources - Secondary: unwise spending
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What were the political reasons that Liberal Reforms were introduced?
Rising popularity of Labour Party, who were attracting the working class with social reforms, so liberals needed to gain back support; introduced to improve public opinion of liberals; needed to show concern for poor in order to stay in power
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What were the moral reasons that Liberal Reforms were introduced?
Lloyd George wanted to 'wage war' on poverty; Lloyd George and Churchill created 'New Liberalism' due to changes in public attitude towards poor; Booth and Rowntree's investigations highlighted issues in Britain
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What were the nationalistic reasons that Liberal Reforms were introduced?
Germany beginning to take over as world power, so Britain needed an improved workforce, and improved health and education were necessary for this; 2/3 of volunteers in Boer War were unfit to fight, highlighting that Britain needed healthier soldiers
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What were the four main reforms targeted towards children?
1906: free school meals; 1907: school medical inspections; 1907: education act; 1908: children and young persons act
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What was the main reform targeted towards the elderly?
1908: Old age pensions act; 5s a week for singles, 7s 6d for married couples
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What were the three main reforms targeted towards workers?
1906: Workers compensation act; 1909: Labour exchanges act; 1911: National insurance act (part 1 & part 2)
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What were some of the benefits of the reforms?
By 1914, 150,000 children were getting one good meal a day; 25% of school funds reserved for children; by 1914, 1 million were employed through labour exchanges act; national insurance act was a vital safety net during hard times
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What were some of the limitations of the reforms?
Councils weren't required to provide free school meals; old age pensions refused to those who had never worked or lived in Britain for less than 20 years; government did nothing to increase number of jobs available
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In 1936, what percentage did Rowntree find that poverty had dropped by?
6% drop in poverty
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What were men still able to do to women until 1891?
Until 1891, men were legally allowed to imprison women in their own homes
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Between 1861 and 1911, what % did the number of female office workers increase by?
From 1861-1911, the number of female office workers increased by 400%
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How many women could vote in local parish elections in 1900
1 million women
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What were some arguments for women's suffrage?
Women paid taxes and contributed to society; parliament decisions affected women; women were already allowed to vote in local elections; women had skills that could help make better laws
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What were some arguments against women's suffrage?
Women didn't fight in wars so weren't official citizens; women were emotionally incapable and irrational; all men would have to be given the vote if women were; middle class women cared about voting, but most other women didn't
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When did Millicent Fawcett found the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies
1897
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What were some of the methods used by the NUWSS (suffragists)?
Peaceful protests: petitions, demonstrations, lobbying MPs, formed an alliance with the Labour party
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When did Emmeline Pankurst found the Women's Social and Political Union?
1903
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What were some of the methods used by the WSPU (suffragettes)?
Predominantly violent methods: attacked politicians, burned churches, chained themselves to Buckingham Palace, went on hunger strikes in prison, blew up Lloyd George's house despite him supporting women's suffrage
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Who was Emily Davison?
First martyr for women's suffrage; threw herself under the King's horse at a derby in June 1913
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What was the 'Cat and Mouse Act' and when was it introduced?
Introduced in 1913, the act allowed for the early release of prisoners almost dead due to hunger strikes, allowing them to gain their strength and then come back to prison
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What jobs did women take on during WW1?
Worked in dangerous munitions factories, took on men's office jobs, worked in medical stations near front lines, women's first army unit made (WAAC), Salvation Army sent female volunteers to aid civilians in France
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How many women had replaced men in office jobs by the end of the war?
1/2 million women had replaced men in office jobs by 1918
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How many women were in engineering jobs by 1918?
800,000 women in engineering jobs
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How did women's efforts in the war give them the vote?
Showed women to be as capable as men, defied stereotypes of women being incapable, removed argument of women not being full citizens for not fighting in wars, women were instrumental in WW1 success, women over 30 given vote in 1918
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How did suffragettes get women the vote?
Publicized women's suffrage, gained respect for war efforts, forced government response through radical actions and made women's suffrage a more pressing matter to the government
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How did suffragettes hinder the cause rather than support it?
Demonstrated irrationality of women through violent actions and drove away potential supporters such as David Lloyd George
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How did suffragists get women the vote?
Gained respect through peaceful protest, worked with the Labour party and had a successful alliance, united suffrage supporters to make strong group (50,000 members by 1913), spread message internationally
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How did suffragists not benefit the cause?
Due to their peaceful protests, it was easy for the government to continuously ignore the suffragists
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How many French and British soldiers died during WW1?
10% of all combatants died; 9 million French and British died, including civilians
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How many British men volunteered to fight in the first month of the war?
1/2 a million
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How many had enlisted by 1916?
Over 2 million enlisted by 1916
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What was the Derby Scheme?
A recruitment scheme; men were invited to promise to sign up if asked to, but it didn't work; only half of the men wanted signed up
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How much of the original army was lost in the first year of the war?
2/3 of the original army lost in 1914
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What was the Defence of the Realm Act and when was it introduced?
Introduced in 1914, DORA gave the government wide-ranging control over Britain; the government could restrict wages increasing, restrict pub hours, take over businesses that were vital for the war effort & use cencorship
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What was the munitions crisis and when was it?
1915; chronic shortage of munitions (shells, ammunition); coalition government established so parties could work together in crisis; Lloyd George forced skilled workers to stay in low paid industries and work long hours to overcome crisis
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When was conscription introduced in Britain and what did it involve?
Introduced in 1916; men of 18-40 years had to register; volunteer number decreased so the government needed to force men to fight, and they needed to replace dead soldiers; 1,500 conscientious objectors out of 8 mill conscripted
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Where was censorship used?
In soldiers' letters home, national newspapers, anti-war articles and publishers banned
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Why was censorship used?
Used in soldiers' letters to avoid military information reaching the enemy and to prevent negative views of the war, used in articles to keep British spirits high and glorify Britain to keep the public supporting the war
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How did authors use propaganda?
Leading authors e.g. Arthur Conan Doyle & Thomas Hardy signed a 'declaration by authors,' and published pro-war books which were free, so the public read them and further supported the war
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How did propaganda influence men to volunteer to fight?
Germans portrayed as treacherous and cowardly, fuelling British hatred for the Germans, leading men to join the army to defeat Germany
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What did Oxford University produce as propaganda?
A five-volume explanation of why Britain was justified in going to war
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How many British war films were produced from 1915-1918?
240 war films produced during the war, giving good coverage of war; people thought all scenes were real, so thought they knew all about the war
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How was propaganda effective?
It persuaded men to join the army and defeat the 'evil' Germans, and influenced women to help the war cause
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Give statistics of how popular propaganda was in Britain
War film 'The Empire' was watched by 9 million people, and 2 million copies of patriotic weekly journal 'John Bull' were sold in 1918
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Why is it difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of propaganda?
Majority of the public remained firm in their support of the war before and after propaganda, so it is difficult to evaluate the impact of propaganda
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How did the British public feel towards Germany at the end of the war?
British people mostly hated the Germans; anti-german propaganda combined with financial difficulties increased public hatred for Germany
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How many tons of British produce did German u-boats destroy?
600,000 tonnes of British food - greatly impacted rationing of Britain
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When did WW1 begin and end?
August 1914-1918
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Card 2

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How many of the men that volunteered to fight in the Boer War were malnourished, and how many were unfit to fight?

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Half of the men were malnourished, and 2/3 were unfit to fight

Card 3

Front

According to Charles Booth's investigation, how many in London were in severe poverty?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

According to Seebohm Rowntree's investigation, how many in York were unable to afford basic food and clothing?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the difference between primary and secondary poverty, as discovered by Rowntree?

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