HISTORY SECTION C A NEW WORLD

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What was the Soviet Union?
Est.1922 consisted of 15 communist republics and also controlled large amount of Eastern Europe within Soviet Empire, who were members of the Warsaw Pact and Comecore THEY HAD ONE PARTY RULE
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Why did the Hungarian Uprising happen?
Khrushchev began de-stalinisation, hated the excessive control, banned religion but strong Catholics, believed would be helped by US+UK+UN, student riots in Budapest
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What happened during the uprising in 1956?
Rákosi was replaced by Nagy, who gave more freedom to media, reduced control and released Cardinal Mindzenty and announced would leave Warsaw Pact
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What was the soviets reaction?
Crushed in 5 days, 1000 tanks Budapest, 4000 killed, children had machine guns, 1000s arrested and Nagy executed replaced with Kádár
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What was the cause of the Prague Spring?
Novotnŷ losing control as government had decreasing popularity due to poor handling of economy
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What happened during the Prague Spring 1968?
Dubček decreased state control but would STAY in Warsaw Pact. Announced in April Action Plan for NEW MODEL OF SOCIALISM
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Why did the societs invade?
Dubček met Yugoslavian president, Brezhnev read letter from communists asking for help, intro BREZHNEV DOCTRINE so couldn't reject Warsaw Pact or leave
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What happened during the invasion?
AUG 500,000 Warsaw Pact troops invaded 70 killed but didn't resist (flower in hair) arrested 47 anti-com Dubček custody + demoted Moscow replaced with Husák
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Why was the Berlin Wall built in 1961?
Divisions, Prosperity, Defections, Vienna Summit
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Who were solidarity?
Est1980 1st non-communist trade union led by Lech Walesa in response to low wages and increase in food prices had 10 million members
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What did they do?
Aug = Gdańsk shipyard strike led to wave of strikes - Walesa=devout catholic so had loyal following and authorities forced to allow Gdańsk Agreement
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Why did things change in 1981-1983?
Jaruzelski introduced Martial Law made solidarity illegal, imprisoned Walesa + 10,000 more
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How were Solidarity so successful in the end?
Couldn't stop as consisted of 1/3 polish public - helped by Gorbachev didn't interfere after 1985 - 1989 = round table talks legit political party won 99/100 seats 1990=Walesa 1st non-com president
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Why were they responsible for the collapse?
Sparked peaceful anti communist revolts all over (East Germ, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria) instrumental in Berlin Wall, dissolving eastern bloc and 1990 collapse
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How were Gorbachevs domestic reforms responsible for the collapse?
GLASNOST allowed more openness e.g. 1940 Stalin kill 25,700 polish soldiers PERESTROIKA decreased control made economy corrupt led to inflation - put in jeopardy demand4change no red army
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How did his foreign policies lead to collapse?
87=Inter-Range Nuclear Treaty 88=no Brezhnev Doctrine 89=no troops Afghan not position to interfere
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How did Afghan war 1979 lead to collapse?
Very costly made very unpopular angered the Muslim Mujahideen 1 million civilians killed problem as many in borders AND 10,000 SOLDIERS DIED
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How did the arms race cause the collapse?
Couldn't afford as needed to reform economy but 1980 Reagan increased spending as hated evil empire but couldn't compete as economy out of date lead to poverty and unrest and poorer than poorest = crime
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What happened during the collapse?
Free elections 1989 in Poland led to revolutions - 1990 Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania independent - Dec 1991 "Commonwealth of Ind States" dissolved - Gorbachev resigned
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Card 2

Front

Why did the Hungarian Uprising happen?

Back

Khrushchev began de-stalinisation, hated the excessive control, banned religion but strong Catholics, believed would be helped by US+UK+UN, student riots in Budapest

Card 3

Front

What happened during the uprising in 1956?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the soviets reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the cause of the Prague Spring?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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