What happened to the Reich Labour Service in 1935? (2.)
All men between the ages of 18 and 25 had to serve in it for a period of 6 months.
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Who did the Reich Labour Service men train alongside?
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What did they do at Nazi rallies?
They marched past Hitler with shovels on their shoulders as if they were carrying rifles.
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What did the DAF create in 1938? (3.)
The Volkswagen Scheme, which offered cars by paying 5 marks per week to do so.
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Why did no-one receive a Volkswagen car?
As the beginning of WW2 stopped production.
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Who was Wolfang Willrich and what did he do for the Nazis?
He was a member of the ** and painted the Nazi propaganda in 1938 named, 'Family Portrait.'
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Name the 4 Nazi ideals on women.
1) Women should not smoke; it may lead to miscarriage. 2) They should appear natural; makeup was a French obsession. 3) They should dress traditionally and not be overtly sexual. 4) The role of women in the kitchen was crucial.
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Name the 2 Nazis ideals on women.
5) Women should be physically robust for bearing children for bearing children. 6) They should be members of the National Socialist Women's League.
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What was 'One Pot Sunday'?
When women would use the week's leftovers to make a stew.
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Who would check One Pot Sunday?
The Block Wardens and the SA.
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Who lead the National Socialist Women's League?
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How many members did the National Socialist Women's League have by 1938?
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How often were the National Socialist Women's League magazines?
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What did the National Socialist Women's League publish and what did it contain?
Magazines that contained training and advice for cooking and cleaning.
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Did the National Socialist Women's League offer meetings?
Yes they did.
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Which Nazi members wife smoked and was on a cigarette holder?
Geobbels wife, Magda.
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How did the cosmetics industry find ways to make money in Germany?
They began to focus on products that made women more natural or aryan, to generate profits.
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Why did the Nazis focus on motherhood? (2.)
To support a thriving Aryan population for the 'Thousand Year Reich.'
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What loan did the Nazis offer to new couples soon after coming into power?
New Aryan couples received a loan of goods for up to 1000 reichmarks.
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What were the terms of the Nazi couple loans? (3.)
That the woman would not work until the loan was paid, the loan must be in goods to help German manufacturing and the couple must be Aryan to encourage Aryan supremacy and non-Aryans were not offered this loan.
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What part of the loan encouraged child-bearing?
For every child they couple had the loan would be reduced by a quarter.
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How many loans were issued in 1934?
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What happened to the loan terms in 1937 and why did this happen?
The requirement for women to give up work was removed, to encourage the rate of marriage and births further.
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What happened to divorces in Germany and why?
They were made easier to obtain, to encourage remarrying and the further births of Aryan children and the race, as wished by the Nazis.
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What happened to women in higher education in Germany?
They were severely limited to attend higher education and each university/college could only take on up 10% of women as their student body.
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Between what years did marriages increase from 516,000 to 772,000?
1932 and 1939.
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When did the number of births begin to decline from a rise in the 1930's?
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What was the average number of children per couple in 1932?
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What was the average number of children per couple by 1939?
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Between 1933 an 1939 did the number of women in employment rise or fall?
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Why did the number of women employed rise or fall between 1933 and 1939?
As the booming economy offered more jobs generically.
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How many women were employed in agriculture in 1933?
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How many women were employed in agriculture by 1939?
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How many women were employed in industry between 1933 and 1939?
From 2.7 million to 3.3 million.
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Did the number of women in higher education rise or fall in the 1930's?
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Why did the Nazis regret their decision on reducing the number of women in higher education?
As when they became obsessed with rearmament they needed women to fill the roles of students instead of men in industry.
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Why didn't women go back into education by the end of the 1930's?
As they were discouraged by the earlier Nazi policies.
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What was the Honour Cross Of The German Mother?
It was a Nazi medal issued to women with larger families.
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What was the bronze Honour Cross Of The German Mother for?
Having 4 or 5 children.
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What was the silver Honour Cross Of The German Mother for?
Having 6 or 7 children.
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What was the gold Honour Cross Of The German Mother for?
Having 8 or more children.
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What is a Hitlergrüsse?
A Hitler greeting.
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Who was the Reich Education Minister?
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What did Rust say about the school system?
'The whole function of education is to create Nazis."
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What happened to politically unreliable teachers and headteachers after the Nazi takeover?
They were dismissed.
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What percent of headteachers were dismissed in Berlin after the Nazi takeover?
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What happened to Jewish teachers?
They were banned from teaching in non-Jewish state schools.
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What percentage of teachers- by 1936- were a part of the National Socialist Teachers League?
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What did the National Socialist Teachers League run?
Political education courses that forced teaches to do military exercises and learn the latest Nazi ideology.
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What happened to teachers that went against the Nazis?
They faced the Nazi machinery of terror.
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What did students begin to act as and who would they go to for help?
They began to act as classrooms spies and they would report teachers to the Gestapo for telling an anti-Nazi joke or teaching non-Nazi material.
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Who coordinated the military cadet/Napola schools in Germany?
** and SA soldiers that taught military education.
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Who coordinated the Adolf Hitler schools in Germany?
Hitler Youth leaders.
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What were Adolf Hitler schools established to focus on? (2.)
Creating future Nazi leaders/members by focusing on military and physical education.
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What was the enrolment for the Napola and Adolf Hitler schools based upon?
Racial and physical criteria.
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Why were the specialist Nazi schools a failure?
As the wholly racial and physical criteria did not result in good candidates always.
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By 1939 how many students were schooled in the specialist Nazi schools?
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How many Adolf Hitler schools were left by 1939?
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How many Napola school were left by 1939?
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From when did schools have to educate children, 'in the spirit of National Socialism.'?
From January of 1934.
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What were newly published by the Nazis?
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What were thrown out by German schools?
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What were teachers constantly sent?
A stream of orders on how to teach Nazism.
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Give three things Nazis did to the history curriculum?
1) They centred the course on the struggle between nations and Germany and Aryan supremacy. 2) Strong leadership (Hitler's leadership) was recognised for changing the flow of Germany's history. 3) The defeat of WW1 was scapegoated onto Jews.
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Give two things Nazis did to the geography curriculum?
1) They emphasised German pride. 2) They taught about the requirement for Lebensraum for Germany's growth.
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Give a thing Nazis did to the physics curriculum?
This was focussed on the science of building firearms and radios and it also taught aerodynamics for the building of planes for war.
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Give two things Nazis did to the maths curriculum?
1) This was altered to be social arithmetic. 2) Pupils were given calculations that indoctrinated them with Nazi beliefs.
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Give a thing Nazis did to the German curriculum?
Lessons were now to explain how the German language developed from Aryans only.
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Give a thing Nazis did to the religious curriculum?
This subject was now greatly reduced and in 1937 it was optional.
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Give a thing Nazis did to the PE curriculum?
It was revolved around preparing students for war health and fitness.
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What percentage of the timetable did PE take up in the new curriculum?
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Give three things Nazis did to the biology curriculum?
1) It became focussed on the study of race. 2) Girls were taught how to find typical Aryan husbands. 3) Some lessons would entail measuring the features of non-Aryan children of a class of children.
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What part of German culture did the Nazis take advantage, to indoctrinate the German youth?
The culture of attending leisure, entertainment and sports clubs.
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When was the Hitler Youth set-up?
In the late 1920's.
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Who coordinated the Hitler Youth and how many parts did it have?
Baldur von Schirach and it had four parts.
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How was the Hitler Youth divided?
Two sections were devoted to both girls and boys and each of these divided into the juniors (aged between 10 an 14) and the seniors (aged 14 to 18.)
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When was membership to the Hitler Youth made compulsory?
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After what year was it compulsory for youths to attend Hitler Youth meetings?
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By 1936 the Hitler Youth was the only Youth organisation that had access to sports facilities and activities, why was this?
As Hitler had shut down many of the other Youth groups.
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Give three things that all Hitler Youth groups did?
They sang political songs, they read Nazi books and they paraded through towns.
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Give three examples of activities that boys did in the Hitler Youth and why did they do this?
Morse code tests, map reading and firing rifles using live ammunition, to prepare them for the military.
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Give two things that the girl's Hitler Youth groups focussed on.
Domestic duties and military nursing.
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What did all Hitler Youth groups have the opportunity to do and who would this particularly catch?
Holiday camps that were particularly attractive to the working classes.
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In what year were Hitler Youth, Hitler and SA models made and released in?
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Give three places that the Hitler Youth were able to access
Out-of-bounds gyms, swimming pools and stadiums.
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Give three places that the Hitler Youth would holiday to.
The mountains, by rivers and near the sea.
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What type of songs would the Hitler Youth sing?
Ones about Lebensraum, the glory of fighting and dying for their fatherland (Germany.)
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What were the Hitler Youth taught about?
About Hitler being a second-God and Hitler's love for the German nation and people. Also, they were taught about Aryan supremacy.
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Who would be resentful and bored in Hitler Youth meetings?
The children that avoided physical activity.
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What did some children do in the Hitler Youth meetings?
Enjoyed the activities, however resisted the indoctrination.
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What did some children hate about the Hitler Youth?
Being forced to attend meetings.
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Was there much difference between Weimar Republic school system and the Nazi one?
No, there was not.
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Were children examined on German myths?
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How many times a week were the Hitler Youth meetings?
Twice a week.
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What were the leaders of the Hitler Youth like?
Emotional ans inconsistent.
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Would family influence children's political status?
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What coating would religious children have against Nazism?
The fact that, 'Christ is more important to us [them] than Hitler.'
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Who constructed the perfect Aryan figure statue outside the Reich Chancellory and when was this?
Arno Breker and it was placed there in 1938.
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Where did the idea of Aryan-supremacy originate from?
19th century German writers and philosophers.
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What did Hans F.K Günther od for the Nazis? (2.)
He he helped to form their racial policy, by sating that there were different types of Aryan people.
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Who were the most superior Aryans?
The Nordic group.
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What typical features would a Nordic Aryan have? (2.)
Blonde hair and blue eyes.
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Name the three different Aryan groups.
The Nordic, the Phalian and the Western.
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When were posters published to show the different types of Aryan people in Germany?
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Who did the term Untermenschen/non-Aryans refer to? (4.)
Jews, black people, slavs and gypsies
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How was a Jew defined, in accordance wit the Nuremberg Laws?
If you had one to four Jewish grandparents (but you weren't a practicing Jew) you were considered to be Jewish.
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Who were Mischling and how were they treated?
Half-Jews (Jews with one to two Jewish grandparents) and these were treated the same as full-Jews.
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How did the Nazis identify a Jew or gypsy and how was this carried out?
By their supposed large noses and they carried this out by measuring the public's noses.
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When and with what event did the persecution of the the Jews begin socially?
With the boycotting of Jewish shops in April of 1933.
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In what year did signs, such as: ones saying, 'No Jews Wanted Here.' appear in parks, shops and restaurants and what effect did the have on the Jewish community?
In 1935 they became common and they socially isolated the Jewish population from the rest of the German population.
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In March of 1933, what happened to a Jewish person as a part of physical persecution?
A Jew had his windows smashed in by the SA unlawfully.
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What did Micheal Siegel do for a fellow Jew and why in March of 1933?
He represented them as their lawyer, when they unlawfully had their windows smashed in by the SA.
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What did the German police do to Siegel in Munich? (2.)
They beat him and forced him to walk through Munich with a sign that said, 'I will never complain to the police.' and they did this in preference to helping him and his client.
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When was there a lot of persecution of Jews in Germany?
The summer of 1935.
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What did publications in the Nazi reign show about Jews? (3.)
It wrongly portrayed them as money grabbers and communists, intent on destroying Germany.
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What type of cartoons did newspapers, such as: the Nazi newspaper, 'Der Stürmer' show Jews as? (2.)
Paedophiles and rapists.
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What anti-Semitic children's book was published in 1938 by Julius Streicher (the editor of Der Stürmer?)
Der Giftpilz (the Toadstool.)
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How did the Toadstool children's book describe Jews as? (2.)
Poisonous mushrooms and it stated, "Just as a single mushroom can kill whole family, so a solitary Jew can destroy a whole village, a whole city, even an entire nation."
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What did an SD member say in 1935 about anti-Semitism coming from Nazi grassroots supporters?
"The persecution of the Jews is not meeting with any active support from the population. On the other hand, it is not completely failing to make an impression. Unnoticed, racial propaganda is leaving its traces. People are losing their impartiality."
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When was Kristallnact and give a brief description of the outbreak?
The 9th and 10th of November 1938 and it was the most extreme outbreak of violence against German Jews.
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How did Kristallnact get its name?
As there was so much broken glass on the streets (from the attacks), hence it was named the Night of Broken Glass.
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What triggered Kristallnact and when?
When a 17 year old polish Jew (Hetschel Grynszpan) assassinated a German embassy official (Ernst Vom Rath) in Paris on the 7th of November 1938.
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Why did the polish Jew assassinate the embassy official?
In protest of the German policy of forcing polish Jews to emigrate from Germany.
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What happened when the news reaches Germany of their embassy official being assassinated?
There was widespread anger at the Jewish population.
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What did Goebbles announce after a Nazi party meeting on the 9th of November 1938?
That the Fuhrer had decided that, "demonstrations should not be prepared or organised by the Party, but insofar as they erupt spontaneously, they are not to be hampered."
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What did Hitler Youth groups, local SA groups and Nazi groups do to begin Kristallnact and why?
They began to attack Jewish business and residences, as they interpreted Hitler's message as an official invitation to begin the attacks.
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When did the Kristallnact attacks begin and finish?
They began on the night of the 9th of November 1938 and continued through until the early hours of the following day.
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How many synagogues were destroyed in the Kristallnact attacks?
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How many Jewish-owned commercial shops had their window smashed in and their contents looted in the Kristallnact attacks?
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At least how many Jews were killed in the Kristallnact attacks?
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What did police records show a high number of in the Kristallnact attacks?
Rapes and suicides linked to the attacks.
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How many Jewish men did the Gestapo and ** arrest and mostly send to concentration camps in the Kristallnact attacks?
Up to 30,000 Jewish men.
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What was the knock on effect of the Kristallnact attacks? (2.)
It became known as the first time that Jews had been imprisoned in masse and many Jews died in the following weeks due to the horrific conditions in the concentration camps and general cells.
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Did anyone speak out against the Kristallnact attacks?
Nobody at all.
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Other cards in this set
Who did the Reich Labour Service men train alongside?
What did they do at Nazi rallies?
What did the DAF create in 1938? (3.)
Why did no-one receive a Volkswagen car?
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