Hazards Revision

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  • Created by: tobyf
  • Created on: 10-05-18 17:08
Two main types of hazard?
Geological and Meteorological
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Factors that affect Hazard Risk from natural hazards?
Vulnerability (area, population), capacity to cope (HIC/LIC), nature of natural hazards (type, frequency, magnitude)
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Layers of the Earth?
Inner core (solid), outer core (liquid), mantle (semi-molten rock), crust (continental: thicker, less dense and oceanic: thinner, denser). Plates move because of convection currents in the mantle.
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Plate margins?
Destructive (two moving together), Constructive (two moving apart) and conservative (moving past each other). Volcanoes made at constructive/destructive, earthquakes caused by all.
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Primary effects of earthquakes?
Infrastructure destroyed (homes, buildings, bridges); people injured or killed by debris; transport systems damaged (roads, railways, airports); electricity cables, gas, water pipes and communications networks damaged, cutting off supplies
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Secondary effects of earthquakes?
Landslides and tsunamis (causing more damage/deaths); leaking gas ignites, catching fire; people become homeless and could die; shortage of clean water, lack of sanitation - disease; blocked roads stops aid/trade; unemployment and weakened economy.
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Immediate responses of earthquakes?
Rescue people trapped by debris; recover dead bodies to prevent disease spreading; put out fires; temporary shelters; temporary supplies of water/food/electricity/gas/communication systems; foreign governments/charities sending aid workers/supplies
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Long-term responses of earthquakes?
Re-house people; repair and rebuild; reconnect broken electricity/water/gas/communications connections; improve building regulations; initiatives for economic recovery (tourism)
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Primary effects of volcanoes?
Buildings/rows destroyed by lava and pyroclastic flows; buildings collapse due to force of ash; people/animals killed/injured by pyroclastic/lava flows and falling rocks; crops contaminated w/ ash; people/animals/plants suffocate from volcanic gases
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Secondary effects of volcanoes?
Mudflows (lahars) occur when water and volcanic material mixes, causing more death/destruction/injury; flooding caused by ice melting on volcano; transport networks blocked, aid can't get through; ash makes soil fertile; tourism disrupted; expensive
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Immediate responses of volcanoes?
Evacuation; provide food, drink and shelter; treat the injured; rescue anyone cut off; provide temp. supplies of electricity/gas/communications; foreign govts/charities may send aid workers/supplies/equipment/donations; Google Crisis Response service
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Long-term responses of earthquakes?
Repair/rebuild if possible; resettle affected people elsewhere; repair and reconnect infrastructure; improve, repair and update monitoring/evacuation plans; boost economy if possible
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Why do people live in areas at risk from tectonic hazards?
They've always lived their (friends and family); they're employed in the area; they're confident of support from govt; they think that disasters won't happen; soil is fertile from ash/lava (farmers); tourist attractions (workers in tourist industry)
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Management to reduce effect of tectonic hazards?
Monitoring, predicting, protection, planning
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What is global atmospheric circulation?
Sun warms air at equator, it rises forming low pressure. It sinks at 30° N/S forming high pressure. It rises at 60° N/S as it is less dense than cool air from poles and so rises creating area of low pressure. Cool air sinks at poles (high pressure)
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How do tropical storms form?
When sea temp. is 27°C and when wind shear between higher and lower parts of the atmosphere is low. Warm air rises creating area of low pressure and condensation releases energy. They occur between 5° and 30° N/S of the equator. They go west + rotate
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Features/structure of tropical storm?
The eye: 50km wide, low rain/light winds/no rain/ high temp. caused by descending air. The eyewall: spiralling, rising air, strong winds, storm clouds, torrential rain, low temp. Edges: lower wind speed, smaller clouds, less intense rain, higher temp
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Primary effects of tropical storms?
Buildings/bridges destroyed; rivers/coastal areas flood; people drown or are injured/killed by debris; transport networks damaged; sewage overflows causes contamination of water supplies
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Secondary effects of tropical storms?
Homelessness (causes distress/poverty/ill health/death), Shortage of clean water + proper sanitation (disease); roads blocked/destroyed (aid/ emergency vehicles can't get through); unemployment; shortages of food (crops/animals damaged)
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Immediate responses for tropical storms?
Evacuation; rescuing and treating the injured; temporary shelters; temporary supplies; recovery of dead bodies; foreign govts/NGOs send aid; tech companies set up disaster response tools (Google Crisis Response service)
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Long-term responses for tropical storms?
Repair and rehouse homes/people; repair/replace infrastructure; repair/improve flood defences; improve forecasting techniques; provide aid/grants/subsidies; economic recovery, encourage people to return (tax breaks); better building regulations
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UK Weather Hazards?
Rain (flooding); Wind (damage buildings, debris can kill/injure, forests damaged); Snow/ice (injuries (slipping), deaths (cold), businesses shut, crops damaged); thunderstorms (death/fires); hailstorms (damaging); heat waves/drought
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Climate change evidence?
Ice: one sheet formed each year. By analysing gases trapped in layers they can tell what the temp was each year. Tree rings: trees grow rings each year and are thicker the warmer/wetter. Pollen: scientists analyse pollen types preserved in sediment
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Causes of climate change?
Orbital changes affects amount of solar radiation earth gets. Volcanic material can reflect out sun's rays. The sun's output energy varies, can change Earth's climate. Human activity (fossil fuels, cement production, farming, deforestation)
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Effects of climate change on the environment?
Glaciers/ice sheets melting causes sea level rise and therefore loss of polar habitats and regular flooding. Coral reefs bleached due to higher temps.
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Effects of climate change on people?
Crops may fail more frequently or have lower yields. More money spent on predicting extreme weather. Changing rainfall patterns could lead to problems w/ water availability. People may flee from susceptible areas causing overcrowding and migration.
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How to manage climate change?
Planting trees. Carbon capture and storage (CO2 transported and stored). Alternative energy production (renewable energy and nuclear). International agreements (1997: Kyoto Protocol. Each country had target. UK reduced emissions by 22%)
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How to cope with climate change?
Changing agricultural agreements (new crop types, biotechnology making new crop varieties that are more resistant). Managing water supply (water meters and water recycling). Flood defences, warning systems, embankments
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Plate margin examples?
Destructive - Eurasian plate and Pacific Plate underneath Japan. Constructive - East-African Rift Valley, Africa. Conservative - San Andreas Fault, USA
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Factors that affect Hazard Risk from natural hazards?

Back

Vulnerability (area, population), capacity to cope (HIC/LIC), nature of natural hazards (type, frequency, magnitude)

Card 3

Front

Layers of the Earth?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Plate margins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Primary effects of earthquakes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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