Name the 5 stages of the park model
Pre disaster, disruption , relief, rehabilitation, reconstruction
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Name the 4 stages of the hazard management cycle
Mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery
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Name some geophysical hazards
Volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis
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Name some atmospheric hazards
Tropical storms, droughts, wildfires
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Describe the layers of the Earth
Inner core, outer core, mantle, (asthenosphere), lithosphere
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Is continental or oceanic crust thicker
Continental (30-70km ) compared to oceanic (6-10km)
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Is continental or oceanic crust denser
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How hot is the inner core
6000 degrees
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What is the core made of
Iron and nickel
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How hot is the mantle
1000-3500 degrees
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Explain convection currents
the mantle is hottest near the core. Lower parts of the asthenosphere heat up become less dense and rise, when approaching the top of the asthenosphere they cool down and become more dense and sink. creatingcircular movements, dragging plates
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What’s slab pull
Destructive plate boundary. Denser subducted under less dense. The denser is PULLED towards the boundary
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Whats ridge Push / gravitational sliding
Constructive plate boundary. Magma rises and forms a hot new crust. Surrounding rocks heated, they expand and rise above crust forming a slope. The new crust cools and becomes dense, graving causes dense rock to move downslope. PUSHING plates apart.
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What’s seafloor spreading & what landform does it produce
Constructive margin under the sea. Magma rises, cools and forms new crust , this process continually happens and the sea floor spreads. Creating mid ocean ridges ( eustatic sea level rise )
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Rift Valley formation
Constructive plate margin under land. Magma causes the continental crust to fracture forming fault lines. As the plates keep moving the crust drops down to form a rift Valley
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Give an example of somewhere which has been created by underwater volcanoes at an ocean ridge
Iceland, mid Atlantic ridge
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Example of Rift Valley
East African rift system from Mozambique to the red Sea stretches 4000 km
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Landform at rift valleys
Volcanoes such as Mount Kilimanjaro
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Oceanic-continental ( destructive )
Oceanic subducted under continental. Forms a deep sea trench. Fold mountains are formed from the sediment accumulated on the continental crust. Oceanic crust+ upper mantle= magma. Magma less dense, rises to form volcanoes. Also earthquakes occur
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Oceanic- oceanic ( destructive )
Denser plate subducted. Deep sea trench, earthquakes. Volcanoes underwater create island arcs like in the Mariana islands
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Continental- contintental ( destructive)
Neither subducted. Earthquakes& fold mountains like the Himalayas form
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No volcanoes. Pressure build up as they move past each other may lead to earthquakes. Pacific and North American plate- San Andreas fault
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Magma plume
Not near a plate margin. Vertical column of hot magma that rises from the mantle. Magma stays still but crust moves. Active volcanoes form where there’s a hot spot
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Which island was formed by a magma plume
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Constructive margin volcanoes- lava type and landforms
Basaltic- runny, most frequently occurring, hot, not violent, shield volcanoes, ocean ridges, rift valleys
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Destructive margin volcanoes - lava type and landforms
Andesitic, ryolitic. Viscous, cooler, not common. Lava creates blockages to volcanic vents and the pressure build up leads to violent eruptions. Composite/ stratovolcano
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Primary volcano hazards
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Pyroclastic flows (nueè ardente)
Ash/gas/rock. Travels at 80km/h. Flows around 10-15km. Pompeii buried this way. They come with little warning
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Lava flows
Down the volcanic vent. Travelling up to 10 KM/h. Slow flows, easy to evacuate but everything in its path is destroyed
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Volcanic gases
Sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide. Leading to breathing difficulties
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Pyroclastic/ash fallout (tephra)
Travelling thousands of KM from the volcano. Heaviest rocks deposited near the volcano. Particles far away. Largest may destroy buildings, finest may cover buildings in metres of ash.
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Secondary volcano hazards
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Mudflows (Lahars)
Volcanic material+water. Either from rainfall or from ice melted by the volcano. Moving up to 80km/h. Can destroy infrastructure and habitats. May lead to tsunamis
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Acid rain
Volcanic gases+ water vapour? Damage ecosystems, erode buildings
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Volcanic explosivity index
0-8. Amount of material released and the hight it’s blasted
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Prevention of a volcano
They can’t be prevented but the damage done can be reduced by stopping people living near them
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Preparing for a volcano
Monitoring systems, evacuation plans, finding out where the nearest shelter is, communities can develop search and rescue teams
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Adapting to a volcano
Strengthening buildings, setting up farms nearby which benefit from fertile soils
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Soufirere Hills Volcano- Montserrat. LIC
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When was the last eruption (before this one)
300 years ago
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When did it erupt
June- September 1997
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What type of margin is it on
Destructive. North American under Caribbean
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How much material was released in the largest eruption.
4-5 million m^3. In 20 mins
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Economic impacts
£1 billion loss in value of people’s homes . 20 villages and 2/3 of homes destroyed by pyroclastic flows. Tourists stayed away. Some adventure tourism increased. Schools, hospitals, port and airport destroyed
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Social impacts
19 died. 7 injured. Hundreds left homeless. Government offices destroyed. 8000 of the 12000 inhabitants never came back
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Environmental impacts
Capital city of Plymouth buried under 12m of mud and ash. Vegetation destroyed. Volcanic ash improved soil fertility
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People evacuated to the north. Shelters built. Temporary infrastructure built. 17 million of emergency aid from UK. Search and rescue. Risk map and exclusion zone created.Uk provided 41 million long term aid. A volcano observatory been built
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Eyjafjallajökull Volcano. Iceland. HIC
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Where’s the volcano situated
Underneath an icecap in Iceland
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What type of plate boundary
Conservative ( Iceland is built from a cluster of underwater volcanoes at the mid Atlantic ridge)
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When did it erupt
Started in 2010, erupted a month after
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How often are volcanic eruptions in Iceland
Every 4-5 years
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Magma and the ice that melted created what....
A plume, of up to 33,000 feet
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Economic Impacts
Kenyan farmers lost 2.8million from perishable goods that couldn’t be shipped, air transport was stopped for 7 days, airlines lost £130 million per day, Eurostar benefitted(50,000 extra customers)
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Environmental impacts
Plankton bloom from the dissolved iron into oceans, 2.8 million tonnes of carbon didn’t get released into the atmosphere because flights were grounded, glacier melted. 700 evacuated
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Social impacts
500 farmers evacuated, ash contaminated water suppliers, infrastructure damaged. No fatalities
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Was Iceland prepared
Yes, they’ve got the funding and the familiarity with volcanic hazards to be able to alert residents and to mitigate the damage done
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What are the scales to measure earthquakes
Richter, moment magnitude, mercalli
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What does the richter measure
Magnitude( power of shaking) of an earthquake. No upper limit. Logarithmic
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What does the moment mangnitude measure
Amount of energy released. Logarithmic, no upper limit. More accurate for large earthquakes
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What does the mercalli measure
Impacts using observations. From 1-12
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What tectonic hazards can earthquakes lead to
Landslides, soil liquefaction,tsunamis
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Where do the highest magnitude of earthquakes occur
Destructive margins
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Primary impacts of earthquakes
Businesses destroyed, deaths, people left homeless, gas lines break, industrial units and power plants destroyed
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Secondary impacts of earthquakes
Disease spreads from decontaminated water, tsunamis are triggered killing people and damaging property, infrastructure may be difficult to rebuild, ecosystems may be destroyed, shortages of food may create political conflict
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Responses to earthquakes
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Mostly can’t be prevented. Unless it’s mining or fracking provoked
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Earthquake warning Systems, plan of action, evacuation routes, search and rescue teams
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Retrofit buildings, adapt buildings to the hazard
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Kashmir Earthquake. Pakistan. LIC
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What plate boundary is it at
Destructive. Indian subducted under Eurasian
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What did it measure on the MMS
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How big of an area got damaged
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How many aftershocks
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Social impacts
80,000 died, 3 million homeless, water pipes burst, electricity lines broke, landslides blocked roads,diarrhoea spread
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Economic impacts
$5 billion damage, whole villages destroyed
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Environmental impacts
Landslides effected habitats, Jhelum valley landslide was 1km wide and 2km long, created a dam that blocked two rivers
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International aid of $5.8 million, poor infrastructure delayed responses, tents and blankets weren’t given to all, ERRA set up to coordinate activities, 40,000 relocated
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Tropical Storms
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Conditions needed for a tropical storm
A disturbance near the sea surface( eg low pressure ), above 27 degrees and 50m deep sea water, convergence of air, at least 5 degrees from the equator
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Where do they typically form
The tropics
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What are trade winds
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What’s the coriolis effect
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What shape are tropical storms
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How long do they usually last
7-14 days
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Which direction do they spin in each hemisphere
Anti-clockwise ( northern) clockwise ( southern)
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What’s the low pressure area called
The eye
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What happens near the top of the storm
There’s an outflow of moisture laden air so cloud cover extends either side of the eye
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What scale are tropical storms measured on
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What does the scale measure
Wind speed. (1-5)
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When are storms most common in each hemisphere
Northern( June- November). Southern (November-April)
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What forms can a storm take
High winds( reaching up to 300 KM/h), storm surges, heavy rain( in 1966, 1000mm of rain fell in 12 hours during storm Denise) , flooding, landslides
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Social storm impacts
People drown, houses destroyed, electricity cut off, sewage overflows causing water contamination leading to diseases, food shortages because of damage to agricultural land
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Political storm impacts
People may blame authorities for shortages, expensive building repairs may stunt infrastructure developments
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Economic storm impacts
Huge amount of money to rebuild, less trade because businesses are damaged , agricultural land is damaged preventing farming
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Environmental storm impacts
Beaches eroded, coral reefs damaged, environments polluted by saltwater or oil or chemicals , landslides can block watercourses making them change course
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Storm hazard responses
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Storms can’t be prevented, but they can be studied and people can live in areas which aren’t high risk
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People and authorised can prepare. Emergency services train especially , governments can plan evacuation routes , people can be educated on what to do
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Buildings can be designed to withstand storms, reinforced concrete and secure roofs. Buildings put on stilts. Flood defence still can be built along rivers, such as leaves or sea walls along the coast
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Hurricane Katrina. Tropical storm. HIC
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When was it?
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What’s the GDP of the USA
19.39 trillion
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How frequent are tropical storms in New Orleans
Every few years
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How much did the damage cost
125 billion ( one of the costliest storms in history)
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What category was the storm when it hit
3, downgraded from a 5
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Why was Louisiana so vulnerable
Levies were not built to sustain a big storm when given the option corpse stated they didn’t have the funds and built with poor materials, The soil is of poor quality and the land is sinking by 2 inches every year Lousina under water by 2100
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How fast were the winds and how much rain was there
200km/h and 200-250 mm of rain
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How high were some of the storm surges
surges up to 8.5 m
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The storm occurred during August which was in storm season
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How much of New Orleans got submerged underwater
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How many houses were destroyed
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The superdome provided emergency shelter how many did it hold
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How much damage was done to the economy from the lack of logging
$1 billion
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What’s the name of the bridge that collapsed
I 10
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How many jobs were lost from businesses
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How many deaths were there
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How many oil plants were damaged and what was the consequence
30 oil plants were damaged leading to huge oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico which triggered damage to ecosystems
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What happened to turtles
Turtle breeding grounds were damaged and saltmarshes were flooded
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How much was raised from charity aid
4 billion
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What happened to Coffins
Some coffins got dug up from the ground and were displaced traumatising people
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How many schools were destroyed and damaged
18 schools were destroyed and 74 damaged
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When was the first warning and when did the storm hit
First warning was the 26th of August the storm hit on the 28th
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Black versus white New Orleans
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What ethnic background were the poorest people
Black and Hispanic
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How many black people have not returned
One in three
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How many times more likely are you to be flooded if your black
Three times
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Percentage of black people had no insurance
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What is the percentage of child poverty before and after the storm
40% after 20% before
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Which area was the worst effected
The lower ninth ward
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Has White New Orleans recovered
According to many people yes
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Percentage of people who evacuated
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Typhoon Haiyan. Tropical storm. LIC
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When did it occur
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How many deaths were there
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How many homes were destroyed
1.1 million
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It was one of the most powerful storms on record
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The storm hit on the 3rd to the 11th of November which was out of the official season
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How much was Tacloban destroyed
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What category storm is it
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The Philippines are a multi hazardous low-lying country which are hit by 21 storms a year on average
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What had happened three weeks before Haiyan hit
There had been a magnitude 7.2 earthquake meaning many people were still in temporary shelters and receiving aid
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What’s the GDP
313 .6 billion
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How high was some of the storm surges
7.5 m which is particularly dangerous because the Philippines often only lies 5 m above sea level
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What made the evacuation difficult
Only 40% of the population have access to the Internet and there’s a lot of regional languages so it’s difficult to broadcast
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There is extreme poverty in the Philippines
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What led to curfew being put in place
There was widespread looting
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How many people are evacuated
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Why did temperatures increase
Trees were rooted meaning carbon was released therefore increasing temperatures
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How long was the airport shut
Three days
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What percentage of employment in the Philippines is agricultural
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How much of the exports do coconuts account for
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What was the knock on effects for other countries of the decrease of rice exports in the Philippines
Trade improved in countries such as India and Vietnam
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Rescue teams living in the Philippines were impacted due to the scale of the storm affecting everyone, not enough shelters were built $1 million of food wasn’t given out due to improper storage
Cash the work schemes were implemented to help me build the city, grants were made for local fisherman to buy boats save the children built new schools
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Both had delayed responses both had a lot of deaths both in areas of risk of flooding both had big storm surges
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The USA is a wealthy country. less used to storms in the USA, it’s is a more developed country.
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Types of wildfires
Ground: where the ground itself burns its slow with no flame and little smoke . Surface: where leaf litter and vegetation bed can be low or high intensity . Crown: where the fire moves through the canopy these are intense and fast
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Conditions that create intense wildfires
Vegetation:thick, oily( eucalyptus/pine). Fuel: nine dry material in large quantities. Climate: sufficient rainfall for vegetation to grow, a dry season and strong winds. Fire behaviour: firebrands and creeping fires make more intense fires
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Causes of wildfires human
Most fires start this way either by accident or on purpose. Dropping cigarettes allowing bbq’s to get out of control or arson
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Causes of wildfires natural
Lightning, volcanoes
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Social wildfire impacts
Deaths homelessness destroyed power lines and electricity lead to long-term respiration issues
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Political wildfire impacts
Governments may face criticism
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Economic wildfire impacts
Loss of businesses insurance premium increase the cost of fighting wildfires is large may discourage tourists
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Environmental wildfire impacts
Habitats destroyed ecosystems changed soils damaged carbon released plant seeds may benefit as the able to germinate smoke causes air pollution
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Wildfire responses
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Short-term responses
Trying to put the fire out diverting it from settlements evacuating people
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Long-term responses
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Public education ( Smokey Bear )fire beaters to put out small fires
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Having an emergency plan emergency food water medicine and emergency shelters
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Use nonflammable building materials create fire breaks
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Wildfire case study. Australia
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When did they occur
November 2019- February 2020
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Where did it origninate
New South Wales
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What made it such a big fire
2019 was a hot dry year & global warming
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How many people died
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How many homes were destroyed
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Where did people evacuate to
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How many volunteer fire people was there
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The worst pollution levels were recorded on New Year’s Day. How many x hazardous was it
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How hot was the hottest day on record
41.9 degrees
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It was the most devastating fire on record
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An area the size of what country burnt
South Korea
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How many animals died
1 billion
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30% koalas habitats destroyed .Koalas might go extinct
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How much was donated
$500 million donated, including $1 million from Elton John
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Multi Hazardous environment. Philippines
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destructive plate Boundry. Philippine subducted under Eurasian. Mount Pinatubo in 1991 killed 700 people, left 200,000 homeless and decreased global temperatures by 1°
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Earthquakes and tsunamis
Earthquake of magnitude 7.8 occurred on Luzon island in 1990 killing over 1500 people. In 1976 an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 caused a tsunami that hit the moro gulf killing thousands
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Tropical storms
Typhoon haiyan
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People are used to hazards and are therefore able to stockpile and be resilient
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Disaster policy Philippines
Prevent people building in areas at high risk, adapt buildings, increase public awareness, monitor hazards
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Earthquake hazard . HIC. Italy
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What magnitude was the earthquake
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When did It hit
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What plate margin
Destructive. Eurasian and African
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How Many people were killed
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How Many people were left homeless
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How much did the damage cost Italy
$15 billion
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When was The last earthquake Laquila had experienced
300 years ago
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Social impacts
Historic buildings destroyed, people rehoused in earthquake resistant homes, younger people left define jobs elsewhere. This altered the architectural and social character
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Economic impacts
University buildings were damaged making them unusable, this reduced the number of students enrolling The government plans to reconstruct the area to be stronger than before by making it more attractive to students
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Political impacts
Scientists have been blamed for not giving the public warning about the risk which has led to tension between residents and officials,. The government has been blamed for not rebuilding it quickly enough and not including residents in decision-makin
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The response is varied some people accepted new homes others tried to reduce risk by working with builders to create new homes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Name the 4 stages of the hazard management cycle


Mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery

Card 3


Name some geophysical hazards


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Card 4


Name some atmospheric hazards


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Describe the layers of the Earth


Preview of the front of card 5
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