Grammar and syntax


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  • Created by: Corinnaxo
  • Created on: 16-04-14 14:51
What is morphology?
The area of language that deals with the formation of words from smallest units called morphemes
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What is a morpheme?
The smallest unit of grammatical meaning, they can be words in their own right or combined with other morphemes to create lexical units
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What is the linguistic rank system?
A system that shows the relationship between levels of language units
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Describe the prescriptive approach
Concentrates on how language ought to be structured and sees other ways of writing as deviant and inferior
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Describe the descriptive approach
An approach that focuses on actual language use
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What are noun phrases?
A group of words centered around a head noun
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What is a constituent structure?
The key components of a phrase
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What is pre-modification?
Modifying that occurs before the head noun
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What is a modifier?
A word that qualifies the sense of a noun
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What is a qualifier?
Further information to complete the phrase
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What is post-modification?
Modifying that occurs after the head noun
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What is a prepositional phrase?
Preposition+added noun phrase
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What is a main verb?
A verb that details the main process in a verb phrase
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What is a negating particle?
A small item used to form a negative construction e.g. not
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Describe an obligatory component
A necessary part of the verb phrase
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Describe an optional component
An additional part of the phrase that may not be present e.g. an extension or a negating particle
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What is a primary auxilary?
Describes tense changes
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What is a modal auxilary?
Expresses degrees of probability/possibility/certainty/necessity or obligation
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What is a semi auxilary?
primary auxilary+another word+to
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What is a catentive?
A verb that can attach to another to form a chain
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What is an actor?
An individual/entity responsible for the action
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What is an agency?
The responsibility for/cause of an action
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What is an active voice?
Includes actor/agency
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What is a passive voice?
Does not include actor/agency
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What is an adjectival phrase?
An adjective as its head
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What is an adverbial phrase?
An adverb as its head
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What is a clause?
A group of lexical items centered round a verb phrase
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What is a double-object construction?
A clause with a verb and 2 objects (direct & indirect)
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What is a direct object?
An object directly affected by the verb
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What is an indirect object?
An object indirectly affected by the verb
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What is a ditransitive verb?
A verb that requires 2 objects
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What is a monotransitive verb?
A verb that only requires 1 object
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What is an intransitive verb?
A verb process that has no object e.g. I yawned or slept
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What is a simple sentence?
A sentence consisting of one single main clause
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What is a compound sentence?
Containing 2 or more clauses connected with co-ordinating conjunctions
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What are co-ordinating conjunctions?
Words such as 'and' 'but & 'or'
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What is a complex sentence?
2 or more clauses, 1=main clause 2=subordinate clause connected with sub-ordinating conjunctions
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What is a compound-complex sentence?
A sentence containing both co-ordination and sub-ordination
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What is a main clause?
A clause that makes sense on its own
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What is a subordinate clause?
A clause that is dependent on another to complete the full meaning of the sentence
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What are subordinating conjunctions?
Words such as 'although' 'because' and 'while'
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What is an utterance?
A group of spoken words roughly equivalent to the sentence in written terms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a morpheme?

Back

The smallest unit of grammatical meaning, they can be words in their own right or combined with other morphemes to create lexical units

Card 3

Front

What is the linguistic rank system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the prescriptive approach

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the descriptive approach

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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