GOVP1 - Participation and Voting Behaviour Part 1

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Definition of Politics
Process by which individuals and groups made collective decisions against a competing background of competing values and interests.
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What did Howard Lassell call his 1935 book?
Politics: Who gets what, when and how
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Definition of Democracy
Rule by the people
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Where did democracy originate from?
Ancient Greeg city states
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What did Aristotle call democracy?
Mobocracy
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What is direct democracy?
The many rule and participate directy in the legislative process
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What is representative democracy?
Citizens elect people to represent and legislate for them.
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What are the criticisms of direct democracy?
Suitable for small states only :: Decisions take too long :: Everyone cannot devote time :: Mass audience can easily be swayed :: Too costly
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What are the benefits of direct democracy?
Cooperative comunity :: Transparent process
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Where is direct democracy currently used?
Swiss Cantons, online in New England
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What are the advantages of representative democracy?
Efficient :: Officials democratically elected, not appointed ::
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What are the disadvantages of representative democracy?
Party politics :: Lose touch with voters :: Allows elite to dominate :: Electoral systems distort results :: Lose touch with voters
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What did Rousseau say about elections?
"English are election slaves"
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Other types of political systems
Totalitarian (China) :: Dictatorship :: Theocracies :: Military regimes
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What is direct democracy also known as?
Market-place democracy
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What are some of the key features of representative democracy?
Rule of law :: Free & Regular elections :: Freedom of press / speech :: Secret ballot :: Ind judiciary :: Pluralism
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What is political participation?
This collectively refers to the range of ways in which citizens can involve themselves in the political process
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Political participation - Voting
Voting in GEs or referendums - Compulsory in Australia
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Political participation - Contact MP
With a complaint / question / query / campaign
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Political participation - Stand in election
Local council elections
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Political participation - Pressure group
Join a PG such as Fathers 4 Justice
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Political participation - Canvassing
Door knocking or manning phones during election time
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Political participation - Direct Action
Protests / Demonstrations
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Political participation - Violence
IRA Brighton Bombings - Tory party conference
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What did Edmund Burke say about political participation?
"If people didn't participate, then evil will triumpth"
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What is franchise?
The franchise is the right to vote as established by parliamentary stature - 1969 Rep of the People Act
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What is turnout?
The percentage of registered voters who cast a ballot in a given election.
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What is turnout using VAP?
The turnout of people who are elligable to vote, even if they are not registered.
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What was turnout in 1950
84%
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What was turnout in 1970?
72%
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What was turnout in 1997?
71.4%
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What was turnout in 2001?
59.4%
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What was turnout in 2005
61.4%
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What was turnout in 2010?
65.1%
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What was turnout in 2015?
66.1%
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How many men turned out to vote in the 2015 GE?
67%
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How many women turned out to vote in the 2015 GE?
66%
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How many DE (unskilled) turned out to vote in the 2015 GE>
57%
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How many AB (professional class) turned out to vote in the 2015 GE?
75%
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What is legitimacy?
Legitimacy is the legal right to excerise power gained through a mandate
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What is a mandate?
The right of the governing party to pursue the policies it sets out in its GE manifesto.
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What is voter apathy?
A state of indifference towards their political institutions
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What is voter hapathy?
Voters may abstain from voting because of happiness towards the way they are being governed
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How many 18 to 24 year olds turned out to vote in the 2015 GE?
43%
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How many 65 + year olds turned out to vote in the 2015 GE?
78%
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How many 'whites' turned out to vote?
68%
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How many BME turned out to vote
56%
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How many people who owned a house turned out to vote?
77%
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How many people who were in social rent turned out to vote?
56%
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18-24 Year olds - Con lead over Lab in the 2015 GE?
-16%
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65+ Year olds - Con lead over Lab in the 2015 GE?
24%
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AB - Con lead over Lab in the 2015 GE?
19%
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DE - Con lead over Lab in the 2015 GE?
-14%
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Owned house - Con lead over Lab in the 2015 GE?
24%
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Social renter - Con lead over Lab in the 2015 GE?
-32%
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Variable turnout - Type
Higher turnout for important elections - First / Second order elections
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What was the turnout for the 2014 EU Parliament elections?
35.6%
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Variable turnout - Value of vote
Marginal / Safe seat
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Variable turnout - Electoral system in operation
FPTP leads to waster votes.
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Variable turnout - Media
Intense media coverage can increase participation - especially when polling is close
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Partisan dealignment
Decreasing strength of attachment an individual has to a political party
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Partisan alignment
The strong attatchment between an individual and a political party.
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Variable turnout - Voter fatigue
Lots of elections can lower turnout.
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Scottish Parliament 2011 turnout
50.4%
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Scottish Parliament 2016 turnout
55.6%
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Lack of civic duty?
Robert Putnam - bowling alone - mechanised society so people become apathetic community
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What lead to Labour have over the Tories in Blackley and Broughton?
Safe Labour seat of 45%
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What was turnout in the Blackley and Broughton constituency in 2015?
51.6%
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What was the turnout in Gower?
70%
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What was the Con majority over Labour in Gower?
27 votes
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MPs surgery's
Andrew Stephenson MP for Pendle - every other week constituencies
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How many people watched the first 2010 leadership debate?
Average of 9.4 million viewers
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What is participation crisis?
The view that declining levels of political participation in the UK threaten to undermine its democratic system
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What was the POWER inquiry?
An inquiry into the state of political participation in the UK b
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What is participation crisis?
The view that declining levels of political participation in the UK threaten to undermine its democratic system
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What was the POWER inquiry?
An inquiry into the state of political participation in the UK by the Joseph Rowntree Trust.
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When was the POWER inquiry?
2006
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How many members does the RSPB have?
Over 1 million
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How many members does the Tory party have?
150000
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How many members does Labour have?
520000
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How many members does the RSPB have compared to three biggest political parties?
2012 - Twice as many
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Noreena Hertz
"It's not about apathy - while voting is warning alternatives forms of political expression...are all on the rise"
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How many individuals have boycotted products for ethical reasons in 1984?
4%
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How many individuals have boycotted products for ethical reasons in 2000?
31%
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How many people bought goods for political, ethical or environmental reasons in 2000?
28%
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Participation does matter - Alienation and exclusion
If people do not particpate, they are ignored and their voices / needs are not taken into consideration
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Participation does matter - Right to vote
People have fought for the right to vote in free elections. Chartists and suffragettes
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Participation does matter - Express their views
'no vote, no say' - Key issues such as taxation, NHS and envirnoment come up in GE manifestos for people to vote on.
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Participation does not matter - Priorities
People now have more money and more activites to do, so politics is not as important.
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Participation does not matter - Other forms
Often other forms come up on single issues that quickly fade away.
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Participation - Organising election events
Every year, Andrew Stephenson MP holds a summer garden party for all CC members to thank them for their hard work throughout the year.
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What percentage of the electorate voted for Labour in 2005
21.6%
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What did the POWER report conclude?
There was popular disillusionment with democratic institutions and the main political parties, but other forms of participation were on the rise.
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What is political culture?
The ideas, beliefs and attitudes that shape political behaviour within a given area.
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UK political culture - Homogeneity
The belief that citizens share a common heritage and identiy. A sense of togetherness that transcended what divides them.
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UK political culture - Consensus
UK citizens accept the basic "rules of the game" including toleration, pragmatism, peaceful negotiation and compromise.
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UK political culture - Deference
The idea that people naturally defer to the ruling elite that were "born to rule". This has largely gone away now.
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What did UK political culture change?
After World War Two
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Why did UK political culture change?
Immigration, the rise of Scottish nationalism and decline of CofE in politics.
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Political culture - Has consensus gone?
Rise of Thatcher and polarised politics.
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How many members did the Tories have in 1951?
2900000
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How many members did Labour have in 1951?
876000
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What does increase in Labour membership say?
Increase in partisan alignment
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Why can an increase in partisan alignment not be justified?
Tories still seeing a decreasing membership, and other parties only increasing for General Election.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Politics: Who gets what, when and how

Back

What did Howard Lassell call his 1935 book?

Card 3

Front

Rule by the people

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Ancient Greeg city states

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Mobocracy

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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