Globalisation

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  • Created by: em42
  • Created on: 27-04-15 15:27
1. Define globalisation.
IMF definition - 'the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume & variety of cross-border transactions in goods & services, freer international capital flows, & more rapid & widespread diffusion of technology'.
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2. What does interdependence suggest?
That in a globalised world, events in any one country will quickly spread to others.
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3. How was the 'global network' of the British Empire connected in the 19th century?
Anetwork of undersea telegraph cables connected to those overland allowing for rapid communication. Extensive trade in raw materials from colonies & manufactured goods from the UK. A shared head of state, mostly Queen Victoria. Global military power
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3. How was the 'global network' of the British Empire connected in the 19th century? [continued]
(in particular the Royal Navy). Attempts at imposing a shared culture, international cricket is one of the clearest links back to imperial times.
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4. There are several forms of globalisation, all involving increasing interdependence & interconnectedness. What is economic globalisation?
It includes the growth of TNCs, with a global presence & brand image, the global spread of FDI & growth in world trade.
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5. There are several forms of globalisation, all involving increasing interdependence & interconnectedness. What is cultural globalisation?
It follows the growth of TNCs. Increasingly, people eat similar fast-food e.g. McDonald's & watch global news channels such as Sky.
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6. There are several forms of globalisation, all involving increasing interdependence & interconnectedness. What is political globalisation?
It's the dominance of Western democracies (G8 countries) in decision making and the view that democratic, consumerist societies are the 'model' to which others should aspire.
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7. There are several forms of globalisation, all involving increasing interdependence & interconnectedness. What is demographic globalisation?
It results from increasing migration and mixing of populations.
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8. There are several forms of globalisation, all involving increasing interdependence & interconnectedness. What is environmental globalisation?
It involves the realisation that global environmental threats require global solutions.
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9. State and explain four factors that are encouraging globalisation.
Free trade - Removing trade tariffs & quotas has promoted easier & faster trade. Communications technology - Satellite & fibre optic communications have led to growth of mobile phone & internet communications, & falling communication costs.
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9. State and explain four factors that are encouraging globalisation. [continued]
The media - Large global media corporations have global reach & present a similar 'world view' of the news, adding to the sense of a connected world. Consumers - The global consumer has contributed to soaring demand for goods from across the world.
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10. What opportunities has globalisation presented for countries?
Great wealth has been created through trade, China's exports rose from $200 bn in 2000 to over $1 200 bn in 2009. FDI has led to industrialisation, resource exploitation & property development, this creates jobs & wealth & a return for the investor.
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10. What opportunities has globalisation presented for countries? [continued]
FDI into China increased from $4 bn in 1991 to $90 bn in 2009. Devloped world economies are increasingly knowledge driven, information rather than goods is exchanged. Investment in education is one way of increasing opportunities.
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11. What opportunities has globalisation presented for individuals?
Individuals have benefited through migration to economic hotspots such as Dubai & Bangalore.
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12. What are some drawbacks to globalisation?
It has led to growing inequality, the rich have grown richer & the poorest relatively poorer. It is a process dominated by TNCs & governments, & ordinary people may feel like 'pawns' (e.g. lack of unions). It encourages unsustainable economic growth,
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12. What are some drawbacks to globalisation? [continued]
excessive resource & energy use, & so has negative environmental consequences. It tends towards a 'Westernised' global culture where local traditions, languages, food & art disappear.
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13. Globalisation causes migration but why do most migrants move?
They move for economic opportunity & the movements may be il/legal. Since the gap between the poorest & the wealthiest has widened, it encourages migration for greater opportunities. In 2008, migrant stock ~214 mn.
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14. How many legal economic migrants are there?
There are 145 mn (80 mn in 1970).
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15. How many illegal migrants are there?
There are 20-30 mn illegal migrants (largely economic).
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16. How many refugees and internally displaced people are there?
There are 15 mn refugees and 26 million internally displaced people.
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17. Give some examples of illegal movements of people towards economic hotspots, usually from the developing to the developed world.
In the USA, there are major flows from Mexico, including up to 10 mn illegal immigrants across the land border. In the EU, there includes up to 5 million illegal migrants across the southern EU fringe of Spain, Malta & Italy. The Middle East attracts
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17. Give some examples of illegal movements of people towards economic hotspots, usually from the developing to the developed world. [continued]
large numbers of migrants from South Asia to work in construction & domestic service.
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17. Give some examples of illegal movements of people towards economic hotspots, usually from the developing to the developed world. [continued]
large numbers of migrants from South Asia to work in construction & domestic service.
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Card 2

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2. What does interdependence suggest?

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That in a globalised world, events in any one country will quickly spread to others.

Card 3

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3. How was the 'global network' of the British Empire connected in the 19th century?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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3. How was the 'global network' of the British Empire connected in the 19th century? [continued]

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Card 5

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4. There are several forms of globalisation, all involving increasing interdependence & interconnectedness. What is economic globalisation?

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