german history [up to schlieffen]

emperor powers
appoint/dismiss chanc, dissolve reichstag, foreign policy, commander in chief
1 of 53
elected directly, discuss budesrat proposals, cant introduce own legis
2 of 53
allegiance to the emperor, relied on him for his power
3 of 53
58 from all states, 17 from prussia [dominated], ratify legis, elevated
4 of 53
economic growth
360 cartels and syndicates, primary industries established, 1914 industrial superpower
5 of 53
example of economic growth
by 1913 50% world electric products from germany, 90% world dyes by 1900, benz cars
6 of 53
example of economic growth 2
num employed in 2ndy and tertiary increased, transformed to urbanised, industry 45%
7 of 53
navigable rivers, flat northern plain for railway, tariff protection, abundance of raw materials
8 of 53
reasons 2
population grew rapidly thus large market force, banks free from state control, uni enrolment doubled
9 of 53
emergence of 4 ideologies
socialism, new darwinism, nationalism, anti-semtism
10 of 53
order of class
junkers, industrial bourgeosie, middle class, mittlestand, working class
11 of 53
bulow lasted
1900-1909, manipulator, failed to support in DTA
12 of 53
1909-1917, hardworking, short-sighted, lack of experience in foreign affairs
13 of 53
pressure groups existed
agrarian league [junkers led] 1/3 million, pan-german leagure, trade unions and zionists
14 of 53
german conservative party
land-owning farmers, ultra-conservative, hostile to socialism
15 of 53
free conservative
back by industrialists and land owners
16 of 53
national liberal party
party of economic and political liberalism, rep by bankers
17 of 53
centre party [ZP]
uphold catholic church, denominational appeal not class-based
18 of 53
german free thought [left liberals]
left, elements of commerical and professional middle class
19 of 53
marxist, trade unions
20 of 53
kaiser could always depend on the backing of
german conservative, free conservative and national liberals. but their voting strength decreased
21 of 53
what did this represent?
traditional governmental support slowly eroded
22 of 53
whose importance increased?
centre party, won between 90-110 seats until 1912 and SPD start to rise
23 of 53
who supported kaiser;s 'personal rule'
bulow, tirpitz
24 of 53
what was weltpolitik
kaiser believed satisfy germans destiny by colonial acquistions, expansion of naval power
25 of 53
what was DTA?
kaiser made statement to press, bulow backed reichstag, sacked in 1909 after failing to pass budget
26 of 53
zaber affair?
1913, disturbances led to arrests, protests occured byond alsace, bethmann stood by army, kasier didnt sack
27 of 53
hottentot election
1904-05. brutality in s/w africa revealed, SPD and centre object, bulow dissolve reich, reelected led to 1/2 SPD seats
28 of 53
triple alliance
1882, germany, A.H, Italy
29 of 53
reinsurance treaty
1887, russia and germany at war, the other remain tneutral
30 of 53
franco-russian alliance
1894, "nightmare of coalitions"
31 of 53
naval laws
1897-1904. "we demand a place in the sun", 1905 britain concentrated 3/5 fleet in euro waters, HMS dreadnought
32 of 53
anglo-japanese alliance
33 of 53
entente cordiale
france, britain,
34 of 53
1st morocan crisis
35 of 53
bosnian crisis
1908-09, austria annex bosnia, germany supported
36 of 53
2nd morocan
37 of 53
schlieffen plan
prevent war on two fronts - russia in east, france in west
38 of 53
move through belgium, defeat in 6 weeks, defeat russia in 6 weeks
39 of 53
violated 1839 neutrility, underestimated russia, relied on railway timetable
40 of 53
"i know no parties anymore, only germans", political truce between all
41 of 53
war plans - economic
KRA created to distribute raw materials, exports disrupted, capacity to produce enough food limited
42 of 53
labour plans
war boards, Auxilliary service law, mobilise pop for war service
43 of 53
war nutrition office, blockade, conscription, decline in grain supply
44 of 53
16% met by taxation, massive gov debt
45 of 53
political change
"silent dictatorship", ludendorff and hindenberg appoint, kaiser lost confidence
46 of 53
supported by pan-german, victory peace by annexation to achieve world power status
47 of 53
wanted defensive war, not aimed at conquest
48 of 53
july crisis 1917
bethmann supported kreuznach, erzberger drafted peace resolution 212-126 votes
49 of 53
german revolution
1918-19. mutiny in kiel, clear reforms werent enugh, prince max announce kaiser renounce throne
50 of 53
who was next?
ebert formed coalition government
51 of 53
who was in the coalition?
spd, spartacists, uspd
52 of 53
ebert signed
ebert-groener pact and stinnes-legien agreement, neglected far left
53 of 53

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elected directly, discuss budesrat proposals, cant introduce own legis

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Card 5


economic growth


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