German democracy and dictatorship

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  • GERMAN HISTORY
    • CREATION OF WEIMAR
      • COLLAPSE OF IMPERIAL GERMANY
        • WHY GERMANY LOST WW1
          • Failure of Schlieffen Plot
          • Forced to fight war on east and west - stalemate
          • Strengths of allies
          • Failure of the final offensive
        • SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF WW1
          • Food and fuel shortages
          • High rate of civilian deaths
            • From starvation
          • The influenza epidemic
          • Inflation
          • Casualties
        • THE OCTOBER REFORM
          • Ludendorff pushed for political change
            • A constitutional monarchy
              • Kaiser handing political power over to civilian government
          • Two aims
            • Secure for Germany the best possible peace terms from the allies
            • Hoped the change would prevent the outbreak of political revolutionary disturbances
          • Shift responsibility/blame
            • From military leadership
              • To new leadership
            • Stab in the back myth
              • Later vital part to play in Weimar Republic
          • 1918 Max Von Baden appointed Chancellor
            • Moderate conservative
            • Democratic views
            • Parliamentary Democracy
      • THE GERMAN REVOLUTION
        • KIEL MUTINY
          • End of first week in November clear October reforms failed to impress German people
        • Disturbances prompted by...
          • Realisation the war had been lost
          • National shock when news came of Germanys military defeat
          • Increasing bitterness over socio-economic conditions
        • THE OCTOBER REFORM
          • Ludendorff pushed for political change
            • A constitutional monarchy
              • Kaiser handing political power over to civilian government
          • Two aims
            • Secure for Germany the best possible peace terms from the allies
            • Hoped the change would prevent the outbreak of political revolutionary disturbances
          • Shift responsibility/blame
            • From military leadership
              • To new leadership
            • Stab in the back myth
              • Later vital part to play in Weimar Republic
          • 1918 Max Von Baden appointed Chancellor
            • Moderate conservative
            • Democratic views
            • Parliamentary Democracy
        • Prince Max announced the Kaiser would renounce the throne
          • A left-wing provisional coalition government would be formed
            • By Friedrich Ebert
            • Provisional = short term until a national election was held to vote for a National Assembly
              • Philipp Schiedemann
                • One of the provisional governments leaders
                • Proclaimed Germany a Republic
            • Coalition as it was a combination of SPD and USPD
        • LEFT WING MOVEMENT
          • SPD
            • German Social Democratic Party
            • Represented moderate socialist aims
            • Led by.....
              • Friedrich Ebert
              • Philipp Scheidmann
            • Election 1912 - biggest party in Reichstag
            • Membership of over 1million
              • Election 1912 - biggest party in Reichstag
          • The Spartacists
            • Extreme Left
              • Led by.....
                • Karl Liebknecht
                • Rosa Luxemburg
            • By 1918 membership of about 5000
            • Believed Germany should follow same path as Russia
            • Aim was to create a soviet republic
              • Based on rule of the Proletariat
          • USPD
            • Independent German Social Democratic Party
            • Breakaway group from SPD
            • A minority in Reichstag
              • Had 300,000 members
            • demanded radical social and economic changes
            • far from united and internal divisions existed
        • Ebert-Groener Agreement
          • General Wilhelm Groener
            • Ludendorff's Successor
            • Telephoned Ebert
            • Telephone conversation very significant
              • Telephoned Ebert
          • Supreme Army Command
            • Agreed to....
              • Support the new government
              • Use troops to maintain stability and security of the new Republic
          • In return Ebert promised to...
            • Oppose the spread of revolutionary socialism
            • Preserve authority of the Army Officers
      • NATIONAL ASSEMBLY AND WEIMAR CONSTITUTI-ON
      • TREATY OF VERSAILLES
      • THREATS FROM EXTREME LEFT
      • THREATS FROM EXTREME RIGHT
      • ECONOMIC CRISIS
      • STRESEMAN 100 DAYS

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