Geography - Urbinisiation

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What is urbanisiation?
Growth in proportion of country's population living in urban areas,
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Where do most of the population in richer countries live?
Urban areas.
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Where do most of the population in poorer countries live?
Rural areas.
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What relation does this have to urbinisation?
Most urbanisation happening today is happening in pporer countries at a fast rate because of this.
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What is rural - urban migration?
Movement of people from countryside to cities.
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What does it cause?
Urbanisiation in rich and poor countries.
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What are the reasons for people moving to urban areas in poorer countries?
Shortage of services, people believe standard of living is better in cities and more jobs in urban areas as industry is attracted to cities as larger workforces and better infrastructure.
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What is the reason for people moving to urban areas in richer countries?
Began in industial revoloution (18th/19th century) when machinery replaced farm labour and jobs were created in new factories in urban areas
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In the late 20th century why did countries have to redevelop cities to encourage people back?
People were leaveing run down cities.
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Describe the CBD (centra business destrict) / centre of the city?
Commercial centre with shops and offices, where transport routes meet and there are high land values because of competition for space. Buildings are tall and building density is high. Few people live in the CBD.
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Describe the inner city / around the CBD?
Poor qulity housing, old industrial buildings. run down / deprived however new housing and derelict land has been redeveoped.
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Describe the suburbs (housing areas)?
Land is cheaper and still close to the city for work. Middle - class families tend to live there. Nicer enviroment / less crime and pollution.
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Describe the rural - unban fringe (righ on the edge of the city)?
Both urban / rural land uses and fewer / larger housing.
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Why do shops in CBD areas close down?
Shopping centres are built in out-of-town areas.
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What are iner city tower blocks being replaced with?
Estate housing in the rural - urban frige area.
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What are brownfield sites and wwhere are they usually found?
Cleared, derelict land usually founfd in the inner city.
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What are been built on brownfield sites and why?
New housing instead of building them in the rural - urabn fringe area.
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What are some of the problems cities in rich countries have?
Shortage of good-quality housing, run down CBD, taffic congestion / pollution from cars andethnic segreagation.
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How can housng shortages caused by population growing too quickly be tackled by the goverment?
Encoraging investment in housing, services and employment within inner cities.
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How else can housng shortages caused by population growing too quickly be tackled?
Brand new towns been built to house overspill populations from other towns / shortage of housing and relocation incentives to persuade people to live in council houses outside of urban areas to free up space.
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What steps are been taken to revitalise CBDs?
Pedestrianising areas (stopping car acess), improving acess, coverting derelict buildings and improving public areas.
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Why does more cars mean more problems in cities?
More air pollution (damages health), more road accidents and more traffic jams / congestion.
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What strategies are there to support multicultural narture of urban cities?
Accessible information about different services, interpretations at hospitals / police stations and suitable services for different cultures (for some cultures it is only suitable to have same sex doctors).
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What are squatter settlements?
Settlements built illegally in and around citties in poorer countries by those who cant's afford proper housing. They are ovecrowded and abdly built.
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Where do most of the inhabitants move from and what do we cal them?
From the counryside to the city. We call them rural - urban migrants.
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Why are squatter settlements badly built?
They don't have basic services like electricity and sewers.
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What is life like in squatter settlements?
Hard / dangerous and no access to clean water so a low life expectancy.
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Describe work on a squatter settlement?
Work is done within the squatter settlement and the jobs are not taxed or monitored by the goverment (informal sector of economy), long hours for little pay but strong community spirit means they can govern themselves successfully.
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What are self help schemes?
They involve the goverment and local people working together to improve life. The goverment supplies building materials foe locals to uses to buildtheir own homes and teh money saved on labour is used to provide basic services.
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What is site and service?
When people pay a samll rent for a site and they can borrow money to bulid/improve a site on their plot. Rent money is used to provide basic services for the area.
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What are local authority schemes?
Funded bu the local goverment to improve temporary acomadation built ny residents.
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What is industrialisation?
Wher economy cahnges frm being based on agriculture to manufacturing.
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How does rapid urbanisation and industrialisation cause enviromental problems?
Wter disposal problems (people create a lot of waste, causes health problems), air pollution pollution from burning fuel / exhaust fumes / factories and watter pollution (water carries pollutants from cities into rivers and streams.
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What are the effects of air pollution?
Acid rain damges buildings and vegetation, health problems like headaches and bronchitis and ozone destroyed ehich protects from harmful rays.
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How can the effects of air pollution be manged?
With air quility standards for industries and the constant monitoring og levels of pollution.
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What are the effects of water pollution?
Kills fish which disrupts the fooda chain, chemicals bulid up in food chain which poissons humand and contamination spreads diseases.
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How cat the effects of water pollution be managed?
Sewage treatment plants and laws forcing factories to remove pollutants.
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What is sustainable living?
Doing things in a way thats lets people living now have things they need without reducing the ability of people living in the future meeting their needs. Done by not using resources faster than they can be replaced.
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Why is it unlikely big cities will ever become trul sustainale?
They need so many resorces.
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What can be done to make a city more sustainable?
Schemes to reduce waste and dispose it safely, conserving natural environments / historic bulidings by restoring / protecting them, building on brownfield sites, buliding carbon - neutral homes (generate as much energy as tehy use
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Card 2


Where do most of the population in richer countries live?


Urban areas.

Card 3


Where do most of the population in poorer countries live?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What relation does this have to urbinisation?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is rural - urban migration?


Preview of the front of card 5
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