- Successful management of coastal areas depends on understanding the different uses of coastal land and the physical processes impacting on the coast, such as erosion and longshore drift.
Techniques for managing these physical processes can be divided into hard engineering options (such as building sea walls) and soft engineering options (such as beach nourishment and managed retreat).
Conflicts of interest
Land uses in coastal areas include tourism, industry, fishing, trade and transport. There are many different groups of people who have an interest in how coastal areas are managed. These include:
- Local residents
- Environmental groups
- Local councils
- National governments
- Tourist boards
- National Park Authorities, such as the Pembrokeshire National Park Authority
Each interest group may have a different view about what should be done to protect and manage coastal areas. A difference of opinion can cause conflict between interest groups.
Reasons why groups of people might be concerned about the coast include:
- Erosion may be threatening beaches or coastal settlements.
- People may want to develop tourism in the area or existing tourism could be declining.
- There is a danger of flooding if sea-levels rise.
- There could be a problem with sewage and/or pollution.
Hard engineering options tend to be expensive, short-term options. They may also have a high impact on the landscape or environment and be unsustainable
Building a sea wall
Hard enginerring- Advantages a wall built on the edge of a coastline
Protects the base of cliffs, land and buildings against erosion. Can prevent coastal flooding in some areas.
Expensive to build. Curved sea walls reflect the energy of the waves back to the sea. This means that the waves remain powerful. Over time the wall may begin to erode. The cost of maintenance is high.
Building groynes- a wooden barrier built at right angles to the beach
hard engineering groynes- Advantages
Prevents the movement of beach material alon g the coast by longshore drift
Allows the build up of a beach. Beaches are a natural defence against erosion and an attraction for tourists.
Can be seen as unattractive.
Costly to build and maintain
Rock armour or boulder barriers-
Large boulders are piled up on the beach.
hard enginnering -Advantages
Absorb the energy of waves.
Allows the build up of a beach.
Can be expensive to obtain and transport the boulders
Soft engineering options
Soft engineering options are often less expensive than hard engineering options. They are usually more long-term and sustainable, with less impact on the environment.
There are two main types of soft engineering.
- Beach management
- This replaces beach or cliff material that has been removed by erosion or longshore drift.
- The main advantage is that beaches are a natural defence against erosion and coastal flooding. Beaches also attract tourists.
- It is a relatively inexpensive option but requires constant maintenance to replace the beach material as it is washed away.
- Managed retreat
- Areas of the coast are allowed to erode and flood naturally. Usually this will be areas considered to be of low value - eg places not being used for housing or farmland.
- The advantages are that it encourages the development of beaches (a natural defence) and salt marshes (important for the environment) and cost is low.
- Managed retreat is a cheap option, but people will need to be compensated for loss of buildings and farmland.