Geography - Restless Earth

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What is the inner core made of?
Solid iron and nickel
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What is the mantle made of?
Semi molten rock.
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What is the difference between the continental and oceanic crust?
Continetal crust is thicker and less dense than the oceanic crust.
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How do plate smove?
Mantle underneath is moving.
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What are plate margins?
Wher the plates meet.
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Describe destructive plate margins?
The denser oceanic plate is fored under the continental plate and destroyed by the mantle. Often creating volcanoes and ocean trenches.
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Describe constructive plate margins?
Two plates move away from eachother. Magma rise from the mantle to fill the gaps and cool, creating new crust.
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Describe conservative plate margins?
Two plates move sideways past eachother at different speeds.
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How are fold mountains formed?
Tectonic plates collide and sedimentary rock built up between folds and is forced upwards.
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Where are fold mountains formed?
Destructive plate margins.
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Name the 5 human uses of fold mountains?
Farming, HEP, mining, forestry and tourism.
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Describe how humans use fold mountains for farming?
Th ehigh mountain slopes are used to graze animals and the lower mountain slopes are used to grow crops.
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How can the high mountain slopes be used for growing crops?
They are terraced.
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Describe how humans use fold mountains for HEP?
Steep sided mountains can be used to store water as well a high lakes.
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Describe how humans use fold mountains for mining?
Fold mountains are a major source of metal ores.
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What ii preventing mining and how can this be overcomed?
Steep slopes which can be overcome by zig zag roads built on the sides of fold mountains.
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Describe how humans use fold mountains for forestry?
Fold mountains are good enviroments for growing trees. They are grown on steep valley sides and can be used for fuel, building material, paper anf furniture.
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Describe how humans use fold mountains for tourism?
Fold mountains have spectacular scenery andare great for sports.
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How can tourism be made less difficult on fold mountains?
Tunnels can be drilled through for improved access and communication.
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How are volcanoes formed at destructive plate margins?
The oceanic plate moves down into the mantle where it is melted and destroyed. A pool of magma forms which rises through cracks in the crust called vents. The magma erupts onto the surface (now lava) and forms a volcano.
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How are volcanoes formed at constructive plate margins?
The magma rises up the gap created by the the plate moving apart.
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Name the three types of volcanoes?
Composite, shield and dome?
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Describe composite volcanoes?
Cooled/hardened layers of ash/lava. The lava is thick so flows slowly and hardens quickly so a steep-sided volacano is formed.
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Describe shield volcanoes?
Only runny lava which flows quickly and spreads over a wider area, forming a low/flat volcano.
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Describe dome volcanoes?
Only thick lava which flows slowly and hardens qucikly forming a steep-sided volacano.
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What a similarity and difference of a supervolano compared to a normal volano?
Both form at destrctime late margins however supervolnoes only form where the mantle is really hot (hotsopts).
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How are magma forme basins?
Magma rise though cracks forming a large magma basin.
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How do magama basins eventually form supervolcanoes.
The pressure in the basin causes a huge bulge on the surface which eventually cracks creating vents for the lava to escape. The lava erups out of the vents causing earthquakes. Throwing up gigantic plumes of ash and rock.
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What happens to teh empty lava basin?
The empty basin collapses which spews up more lava. The caldera left sometimes fills up with water, creating lakes.
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What are the characteristics of a supervolacano?
Flat, cover large area and have a caldera.
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What are the effects of a supervolcano?
Rock/ash lava is thrown out, a cloud of super-heated gas/rock is thrown flowing at high speeds is created which usually flows for 10 miles destroyinng anything it touches and ash will block out alomost all daylight over whole continents.
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What are earthquakes causes by?
Tension that builds up at all three plate margins.
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How does tension build up at destructive plate margins?
Where one plate gets stuck as it moves under the other into the mantle.
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How does tension build up at constructive plate margins?
Along the cracks within the plates as they move wayfrom eathother?
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How does tension build up at conservative plate margins?
When the plates that are grinding past eahother get stuck.W
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What is the focus?
The point on earth where the earthquake starts.
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What is the epicentre?
The point on the earths surface directly above the focus.
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What does the ricter scale measure?
The amount of energy released by an earthquake.
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What does the mercalli scale measure?
The effects of an earthquake.
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How are tsunamis caused?
When volcanic eruptions and earthquakes happen out at sea.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the mantle made of?

Back

Semi molten rock.

Card 3

Front

What is the difference between the continental and oceanic crust?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do plate smove?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are plate margins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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