Geography Population Change

Exponential Growth
Extreme pop growth.
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Birth rate
The no of babies born per 1000 people.
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Death rate
The no of deaths per 1000 people.
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Natural increase
The no of people added to, or lost from a population, per year, per 1000 people.
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Population Growth rate
The number of people added to, or lost from a population per year as a result of natural increase and net migration. It is a %
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Demographic Transition Model- shows change in birth and death rates as a country develops.
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DTM Stage 1
DR high, BR high, remote tribes in rain forests.
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DTM Stage 2
DR falling, BR high, Nigeria, Afghanistan.
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DTM Stage 3
DR falling slower, BR rapidly fall, India, Brazil
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DTM Stage 4
DR low, BR low, UK, USA
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DTM Stage 5
DR increase slightly, BR low, Japan, Germany
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Population pyramid
A bar graph showing age and sex of a population
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Elderly dependants
+65 rely on the working population.
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Economically active
18-64 working and receiving a wage.
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Young dependants
0-14 rely on the working population.
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When did one child policy start?
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Problems pre policy (CHINA)
Uncontrolled pop growth (50 million per year), stopped country developing.
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Incentives for following policy (CHINA)
Priority housing, free education, 10% salary rise, free health care.
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Decentives for disobaying policy (CHINA)
Fines, prison, forced abortions and sterilizations, 10% cut into salary.
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Problems created by policy (CHINA)
Spoiled children (little emparores), ageing pop, men cannot find wives.
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Where is Kerala?
Southern India
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Kerala's pop controll
People choose to be sterilized, encouraged family planning, good health care, women in education, everyone is equal.
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Sustainable development
Meeting the needs of people now and in the future, and limiting the harm to the environment.
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Land reform.
Redistributing land for farming to all rural families.
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How has Kerala been sustainable?
Land reform= productive country side, women help economy, less children= less strain on the economy.
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Oldest old
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Britain's oldest man
113 years
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Dependency ratio
(children+ elderly)/working pop x100
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Problems with ageing pop (UK)
Health care in greater demand, increase in diseases, pensions= expensive, smaller working pop, more money needed for care homes ect.
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Benefits of ageing pop (UK)
Elderly help community, elderly provide free childcare, elderly have money to spend (grey pound).
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UK's strategy for ageing pop
Free NHS health checks, financial benefits, giving elderly extra money, health prevention packages, building suitable homes, encourage 50+ to become teachers.
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Permanent or semi permanent movement of people.
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Voluntary migraion
People choose to move for better jobs and higher wages (economic migrants)
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Forced migration
People have to move or they will face extreme hardship or death. (refugees)
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Seasonal migrant
People live in a different place semi permanently.
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Permanent migration.
People move to live in another place and do not return.
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A country or area that a migrant has come from.
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A country or area that the migrant has gone to.
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When did Poland join the EU?
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How many Polish migrants are there in the UK?
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Why do Poles move to the UK?
60% for financial reasons.
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Push factors (POLAND TO UK)
Low GDP ($12,700), youth and rural unemployment each at 40%
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Pull factors (POLAND TO UK)
Unemployment low (5.1%), high GDP ($30,900)
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Impacts on the UK (POLAND TO UK)
Positive: £7,000 disposable income, Poles fill a skills gap, Poles contribute to the economy. Negative: more stress on NHS, take all jobs, locals pushed out
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Impacts on Poland (POLAND TO UK)
Positive: salaries increased by 9%, scientists are being payed extra to stay in Poland. Negative: working pop shrinking, 35% industry jobs were not filled, no body to care for elderly.
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Someone who left their country of origin because of persecution (race, beliefs, religion, political opinion, nationality, or social group); or to avoid war.
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Asylum seeker
A refugee who is in another country legally and has applied for protection.
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When did Pakistan close its border? (AFGHANISTAN)
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How many refugees in Pakistan? (AFGHANISTAN)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Birth rate


The no of babies born per 1000 people.

Card 3


Death rate


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Natural increase


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Population Growth rate


Preview of the front of card 5
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Really helpful list of key facts about population change

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