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  • Created by: Jo
  • Created on: 11-06-13 17:13
Water evaporates from the sea
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Water evaporating off trees/plants
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Transpiration and evaporation happening together
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Through flow
Water flowing through the soil
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Channel flow
Water flowing through a river
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Channel Storage
Water stored in a river
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Rainfall/Clouds losing water
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Surface run off
Water running down hills/above ground
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Interception storage
Water stored on leaves/plants
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Water filtering into the soil
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Groundwater flow
Water flowing through rocks under the soil
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Water moving downwards from the soil into the rocks
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Groundwater storage
Water being stored in the rocks underground
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Surface storage
Water being stored above ground in lakes, ponds or puddles
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Rocks that absorb water
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Water shed
Separates the drainage basins
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Small stream that joins onto a river
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Where the river begins
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When two rivers meet
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When the river meets the sea/lake and ends
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What the river flows in
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What the channel is in
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Mechanical weathering
Breaking up of rocks without changing their chemical composition
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Freeze thaw weathering
When water goes into cracks in rocks, freezes and expands the cracks eventually breaking up the rock
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Chemical weathering
Breaking up of rocks by changing their chemical composition
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Carbonation weathering
When carbonic acid in the rainwater (caused by carbon dioxide) reacts with rocks containing calcium carbonate (e.g.. limestone) to dissolve the rocks
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Biological weathering
Break up of rocks caused by living things (e.g. tree roots going into cracks of rocks)
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V-shaped valley
Narrow, shallow channel/steep sides - upper course
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Flatter valley
Wider, deeper channel/gently sloping sides - middle course
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Flat valley
Very wide, very deep channel/almost flat valley - lower course
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Hydraulic action
Fast flow of water erodes the rocks
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Rocks along the base of the river erode the river channel
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Rocks hit against each other causing them to become smaller and more rounded
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River water dissolves some types of rocks
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Large rocks roll along the river bed during transportation
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Small rocks are transported by being suspended in the flow of the river
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Pebbles bounce along the river bed during transportation
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Materials dissolved into the water so carried in the water during transportation
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Occurs when the river slows down, either because of a lower volume, more material, the river becoming shallower or the river reaching the mouth
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Forms after a water. Soft rock erodes under hard rock meaning the hard rock falls and the waterfall begins to retreat upstream
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Curves in the river
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Slip-off slopes
The slope caused when the inside bend of a meander is eroded and the outside bend collects deposited rocks
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Ox-bow lake
U-shaped lake formed when the meander gets more eroded and the neck becomes narrower- The river takes the quickest route and cuts off the meander
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Flood plain
Wide area either side of the river that occasionally gets flooded
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During a flood the heaviest material is deposited next to the river causing natural embankments
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When the river breaks up into lots of little rivers
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low-lying area of land containing distributaries caused by deposition blocking the river
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Round shaped delta
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Triangular shaped delta
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Bird's foot
Delta shaped like a bird's foot
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River discharge
The volume of water that flows in a river per second
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Measurement of volume of water
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Peak discharge
When the volume of water is at it's highest
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Peak rainfall
When rainfall is at it's highest
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Lag time
Time between peak discharge and peak rainfall
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Rising limb
The increase of water in the river
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Falling limb
The decrease of water in a river as it returns to its normal level
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Steeper storm hydrograph
Means less vegetation, more, intense rain, more surface run-off (urban area), previously wet conditions, steep slopes
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Less steep storm hydrograph
Means more vegetation, less rain, less surface run-off (rural area), previously dry conditions, gentle slopes
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Causes of floods
Previous rainfall, heavy rain, snowmelt, shape of land (valley), geology (rock type), deforestation, urbanisation
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Soil becomes loose, water carries soil into river, river bed raises, more chance of flood/Less trees means less water caught on leaves so more water on the ground
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Impermeable materials from buildings increase surface runoff so more water flows directly into the river
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Hard engineering
Man-made protection being build to reduce the risks of floods
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Soft engineering
Using knowledge of floods to reduce damage/risks
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Dam and reservoir (Hard)
Walls built across a river (upper course) and a reservoir is a lake built behind it. Good for drinking water, attractive, create hydroelectric power. Bad because expensive
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Channel straightening (Hard)
Removing meanders-good because water moves more quickly- bad because can cause floods downstream because water gets there quicker
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Man-made levee (Hard)
Good-river holds more water/Bad-if they break, flooding can be catastrophic
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Flood warnings, preparation (Soft)
Impact of flood is reduced, people have time to evacuate/Doesn't stop flood from happening, people may not hear warnings (especially LEDC's), can be expensive
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Flood-plain zoning (Soft)
Prevent building on flood plains/ - good- flooding risk reduced/ -bad- may be no where else to build
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Water evaporating off trees/plants



Card 3


Transpiration and evaporation happening together


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Water flowing through the soil


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Water flowing through a river


Preview of the back of card 5
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