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  • Created by: Katie_
  • Created on: 17-02-14 12:15
Explain how water is transferred from the land to the atmosphere in the hydrological cycle. (4)
Water is transferred from the land to the atmosphere in the hydrological cycle by two ways. For example, evaporation from rivers lakes and oceans and the water evaporates off trees, this is called evapotranspiration.
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What impact has less rainfall had on the Sahel region?
-Less rainfall causes drought which causes seasonal river and water holes to dry up and the water table to fall. -Drought spells disaster for the nomads who graze animals, and for subsistence farmers who rely on rain to grow millet and maize.
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What impact has less rainfall had on the Sahel region?
Grasses die, and soil erosion and desertification follow, due to overgrazing by animals.
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Appropriate or intermediate technology involves the development of schemes that meets the needs of local people (e.g. The technical ability of the local area) and the environment (e.g. Climate) in which they live. Schemes:
-Rainwater harvesting (collecting water from gutters) -Building hand-dug or tube wells for villages
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Describe one human activity that can lead to a reduction in water quantity (2)
Pollution from heavy industry because this can lead to toxic substances being released in rivers.
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Identify two stores in the hydrological cycle. (2)
-Rocks -Soil
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What is the process by which water is transferred from the atmosphere back to the land and oceans? (1)
Precipitation
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Outline one way in which the biosphere (trees) regulates the hydrological cycle. (2)
Plants intercept rainfall, slow it down and give water time to infiltrate into the soil and enter into the ground recharging groundwater.
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Outline the process of precipitation (2)
It occurs when clouds become too heavy/full and water transferring from the atmosphere to the land. It can fall as rain, sleet or snow but usually takes the form of rain. Also, it can be caused by relief, convection or fronts.
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Using a named example, outline two impacts of unreliable and insufficient water supply on humans. (4)
-In the Sahel, Africa, people were forced to drink from contaminated sources, therefore this leads to illness -In the Sahel, Africa, when water quantity is decreased or contaminated the crops will not grow. This can lead to death.
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State one way in which human activity is impacting water quality. (1)
Pollution from heavy industry as this can lead to toxic substances being released in rivers.
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How human interference can disrupt water supply
Pollution from domestic and industrial sources can make a water supply dangerous and unusable. -Over abstraction of water may cause rivers and lakes to shrink or dry-up.
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More on How human interference can disrupt water supply
-Deforestation can affect rates of interception, infiltration and transpiration, impacting on river flow. -Urbanisation leads to increased rates of overland flow and a higher flood risk. Aquifers can also be affected by over abstraction.
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Benefits of the Aswan Dam, Egypt
-Egypt has enjoyed economic expansion with the creation of jobs across the country -Provides electricity, which enables all villages to have electricity, farmers to access water from wells using electric pumps
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More Benefits of the Aswan Dam, Egypt
-The lake provides full protection against flooding -Navigation on the river was improved by the ability to control the depth of the water -Increased crop yields, this allows for crops to be exported
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Costs of the Aswan Dam, Egypt
-120,000 people had to leave their homes. This meant they had to buy new homes -As slit is no longer deposited during the floods the soil is losing nutrients and has to be chemically fertilised. These are very expensive
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More Costs of the Aswan Dam, Egypt
A steady water supply has allowed for an increase in the amount of irrigated land. This now stretches along most of the desert margin of the river valley and delta
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Large-scale water management projects
-Do not involve local people in decision making -Very expensive -They aren’t easily managed by the local people -They benefit a large number of people -They promote and maintain good human health by providing clean water
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Small-scale water management projects
-It involves local people in decision making -Affordable -The locals can manage and fix them -Doesn’t benefit as many people -Provides clean water
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What impact has less rainfall had on the Sahel region?

Back

-Less rainfall causes drought which causes seasonal river and water holes to dry up and the water table to fall. -Drought spells disaster for the nomads who graze animals, and for subsistence farmers who rely on rain to grow millet and maize.

Card 3

Front

What impact has less rainfall had on the Sahel region?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Appropriate or intermediate technology involves the development of schemes that meets the needs of local people (e.g. The technical ability of the local area) and the environment (e.g. Climate) in which they live. Schemes:

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe one human activity that can lead to a reduction in water quantity (2)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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