name the 4 types of erosion
hydrolic action, abrasion, solution, attrition.
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what is a constructive wave?
a wave which builds up land, deposits material (stronger swash)
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what is a destructive wave?
destroys land, erosion, (stronger backwash)
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what is a swash?
pushes sand/ material onto the beech (deposits)
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what is a backwash?
pulls material/ sand back (erosion)
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what is weatering?
the break up of rocks (cliffs) caused by weather conditions.
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what is freeze thaw?
a type of machanical weathering (physical)
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descripe the proccess of freeze thaw
1) rain gets into a crack in a rock, 2)the waterin the rock freezes expanding the rock, 3)frozen water melts the rock starts to contract 4) over a pro-longed period of time of expanding + contracting the rock breaks.
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give an example of chemical + biological weathering.
acid rain -- chemical rain, animals nesting on cliffs -- biologicalweathering.
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what is mass movement?
the downward movement of material due to gravity (can be sliding, slumping or rock fall)
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descripe the proccess of slumping.
there is permible rock (sand) above the impermible (clay) 1)water hits the sand (permible) making the sand travel through the sand 2)over time the water travells till it is reasting on the clay making the bottom all goey and causes it to collapse.
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explain the proccess of cliff sliding
cliff sliding is the movement of a block material. this happens quite quickly. after heavy rainfall the soil destablises and it is pulled down due to gravity.
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explain the proccess of rock fall.
rock fall is caused by freeze thaw this is the expanding and thawing of ice inside a rock which causes small fragmenets of rock to break off the cliff.
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what is longsore drift?
the movement of material along the coast caused by the movement of waves.
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what is the reason from why beaches form on our coastline?
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give 3 factors affecting deposition.
1)the energy flow of thw river slows dow, 2)the wave energy is lower, 3)a lot of constructive waves.
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what is a discordant coastline?
where sea only faces one type of rock at a time, it goes hard rock, soft rock, hard rock , soft rock and so on back wards.
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what is a concordant coastline?
where both hard and soft rock are facing towards te sea at the same time.
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explain the proccess of a wave cut platform.
1) a small area in the head land is eroded called a wave cut hatch, 2) more erosion takes place making the notch get bigger and causing samll bits of rock to fall off, 3)erosion continues till the top of headland collapses leaving a platfrom of rock.
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explain the fromation of a... crack, cave, arche, stack and stump.
1)a crack is fromed from erosion,2)larger crack fromed when water gets in, 3)creating a cave from the large crack being eroded more, 4)the back of the cave gets eroded leaving an arch, 5)the top of the arch is eroded by weathering creating a pillar c
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what is a spit?
a spit is a long finger of sand jutting out into the sea
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what is the formtion of a bar?
lonsore drift deposits material across the coastline and carries on depositing infront of bay joining headlands together blocking of the bay + fills with water and that is called a lagoon.
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explain the formation of a spit.
1)longsore drift transports sand along the coast,2)changes shape of coastline,3)spit grows from the land out into the sea,4)spit sexposed to changes in wind and wave direction causes it to curve,5)a saltmarsh forms in sheltered water behind the spit.
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how is a sand dune formed?
sand washing through constructive wave,samll/lighter bits are blown away + trap against something eg a rock, and the sand is blown in creates a dune. when sand gets trapped it's called an embryo dune. overtime it gets bigger + grass grows.
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what is an example of a erosinal landform
headlands eg:flambourgh head (where you can also find caves, arches and stacks.)
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what is an example of a depositional landform
found on a holderness coast --- spit (spurn head), beaches + sand dunes.
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give 4 examples of hard engeneering methods for managing coasts.
1)sea walls, 2)groynes, 3)rock armour, 4) gabions.
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give 3 example of soft enegneering methods from managing coasts.
1)beach nourishment, 2)dune regeneration, 3)dune fencing.
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what are sea walls?
concreate or rock barriers at the foot of cliffs or top of beaches. that are curved to reflect waves out to sea.
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whart are groynes?
rock or timber structures build at right angles to beach, they trap sediments moved by longsore drift + enlarge the the beach. larger beaches -- reduces wave damage.
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what is rock armour?
piles of large boulders at the foot of the cliff. rocks absorb wave energy protecting the cliff.
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what are gabions?
rock-filled wire cages that support a cliff + provide a buffer against the sea.
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what is beach nourishment?
sand is dredged offsore and transported to the coast by barge. it is then dumped on the beach and shaped by bulldozers creating a wider, higher beach.
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what is dune regeneration?
grass is planted to stabalise dunes and help them develop, which makes them effective buffers to the sea.
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what is dune fencing?
fences are constructed along the the seaward side of existing dunes to encourage new dune formation.
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give 3 possible disadvantages of soft engeneering for coasts
can often need constant maintence, can be time-consuming, can often be damaged easily.
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give 3 possible advantages of soft engeneering for coasts.
realitavly cheap, can increase tourist potential, blends in with nature well.
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give 3 potential advantages of hard engeneering for coasts.
more effective than soft engeneeiring methods, easy to maintain, cheap to produce sometimes.
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give 3 disadvantages of hard engeneering methods for coasts
most of them are expensive, can be an eye-saw, don't always stop erosion but justs moves it else where.
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why do coasts often need protecting?
becuase waves destroy the cliff and beach and if not soft the beach would be gone and any people living on top of the beach will have to move as there homes will fall off the cliff if the cliff continues to erode.
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what part o the coastline do they usulally protect the most?
the parts where the cliff has soft rock exposed as it erodeds faster that hard rock.
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how does a rivers long profile change?
source (upper course)---- steep gradient ... middle course --- gentle gradient ... moth (lower course) --- very gentle gradient.
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how does the cross profile change?
upper course--- v-shaped valley --valley: steep-sided, v-shaped, river: shadow, middle course ---flood plain --- valley:wider,flat floor, river: wider +deeper, lower course --- levees --- valley: very wide, flat, river: wide, deep, +large sediment.
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what is lateral erosion?
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what is vertical erosion
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name the 4 types of transportation.
solution, suspenstion, traction, saltation
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what is solution --- transportation
disdissolved load of sediments transported by waves
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what is suspension?
small sediments held in the river
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what is traction?
large particles rolled on the river bed.
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what is saltation?
particles bouncing alone the river bed.
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how are interlocking spurs created?
a moutain stream erodes vertically creating a v_shaped valley. it winds around areas of resistant rock to create interlocking spurs.
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what are meanders?
bends in a river mainly found in lowland areas, which mainly appear in flatter areas and hwere there is move laterl erosion. inside bend, slow moving water (slip of slope), outter bend, fast moving water(river cliff)
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what is an ox-bow lake?
a bend in ariver (meander) which becomes cut off from the main river.
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are wide, flat areas on either side of a river in it's middle +lower course.they are created by migrating meanders + floods depositing layers of silt .
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how do levees form?
they form when, in low flow,deposiyion raises the river bed so the channel [email protected] carry as much water. during flooding,water flows over the sides of the channel. as velocity decreases sediment is deposited first on the banks then sand raises levees
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what is an estuary?
where the river meets the sea. they are affected by tides, wave action and river proccessses.
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what are levees?
natural embankments(raised bits) along the edges of the river channel.
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name the 3 physical factors that can cause flooding
percipitation, geology, relief
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name the 3 human factors that can cause flooding
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what si precipitation?
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what is geology?
immpermible rocks that [email protected] allow water to pass through
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what is relief?
steep slopes --- mean water flows quickly into river channels
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what is urbanisation?
impermible surfaces eg: tramac roads --- means water flows quickly into drains, sewers + river channels
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what is deforestation?
when trees are cut down --- much of the water stored in levees dlows quickly into river channels
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what is agriculture?
exposed soil can lead to increased surface run off
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what is a hydrograph?
a garph which shows how a river reacts to a rainfall event
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what is a flashy hydrograph?
one with a short lag time and high peak
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what is a flat hydrograph?
has a low peak
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name the 4 main hard engeneering stratages to prevent flooding
1) dams + reservoirs, 2)channel straightening, 3)embankments, 4)flood relief channels
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name the 4 main types of soft engeneering to prevent flooding
1)afforestation(planting trees), 2) flood warnings 3)floodplain zoining, 4)river resoration.
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what are dams + resovoirs?
dams traps water and collects it in the reservoir and realease water when needed.
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what is channel straightening?
when you straigten a river so that it cuts of anymeanders making amore direct root. protecting vunrable locations from flooding.
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what are embankments?
a rasised river bank allowing the river channel to hold more water
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what is a flood relief channel?
a man-made river channel made to by-pass urban areas.
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what are flood warnings?
a thing which warns people about flooding, amount of rain + the amount of time they have.
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what is flood plain zoinings?
where you keep areas close to the river, clear of high-value land uses (houses + industries.)
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what does planting more trees do to help prevent flooding?
intercepts the rainfall so it [email protected] go into the river channel and sothey soak u more water.
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what is river restoration?
when the course of the river has been changed artifically. making it use the natural processes/features of a river(eg meanders) to slow down the water.
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why did boscastle need a flood management scheme?
the area contained a lot of impermible land and had steep sideway valleys.and becuase they have pertically wet summers meaning there permible land is already highly saturated.
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where is te river tees located?
north-east of england. and flows through darlinton then into the north sea
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name 2 benifits of hard enegneering for flood managment
long term options, don't need much managing
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give 3 costs of hard enegeneering for flood management
can be expensive, eye-saw, can take up large amounts of land
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give 2 benifits of soft engeneering for flood management
looks natural, cheap to set up.
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give 3 costs of soft enegeneering for flood management
most of them don't actually prevent flooding,can take long amounts of time to set up the methods, most of them can be expensive to run.
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what management stratages where used in boscastle to prevent flooding?
raised carparks - makes cars stay above flood level - drainage systems - trash screen to stop boulders, trees ect from blocking drainage system -increasing channel capasity -- create slower flow - replaced bridges - stronger last through flooding
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social issues caused by flooding in boscastle
-roads blocked -people get stranded
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ecconomic issues caused by flooding in boscastle
-cost to replace damage -have to pay to put flood management schemes in place.
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enviromental issues caused by flooding in boscastle
destroys plants/ tree ect
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name the parts of a river.
1)watershed, 2)source, 3)mouth, 4)confluence, 5)tributary, 6)channel, 7)drainage basin
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what is a water shed?
the area of of land forming the edge of the river basin
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what is the source of a river?
where the river begins
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what is the mouth on a river?
where the river meets the ocean / sea
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what is the confluence on a river?
the point at which two rivers meet
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what is a tributary?
a samll river or stream that joins onto a larger river
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what is a channel?
where the river flows
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what is a drainage basin?
the area of land darained by ariver and [email protected] tributaries.
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what is a fetch?
how far the waves travel
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what is prevalling wind?
wind directing the waves
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what is a resource?
a stock or supply of something with avalue or purpose.
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what is resource management?
controlling and monotoring of resources to ensure they don't get exaughsted
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what are 2 threats to the avalibility of resources?
1)humans greed + consumption, 2)increased population
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define 'food mile'
the distance food has travelled, from where it was produced to where it's consumed.
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define 'carbon footprint'
a measurement of the green house gasses on an individual proccess through the burning of fosil fuels.
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what are seasonal foods?
foods which are at there best/avalible at one time of the year (eg;strawberries in summer)
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what is organic farming?
foods grown naturally without the use of of chemicals .
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what is agribusiness?
intensive farming aimed at maxamising the amount of food produce.
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is all water on eart accesible?
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define 'water surplus'
the demand for water is lower that supply
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define 'water deficit'
where demand for water is higher than supply
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define 'water stress'
where demand for water is greater than supply at a certain period of time.
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what is a water transfer scheme?
where water is transfered from a place of surplus to a place of deficit (eg;elan valley in wales to birmingham)
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give 3 ways to reduce water consumption
1)water meters, 2)hoespipe bands, 3)recycle more water (eg;waterbutts)
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how much of oil + gas reserves have been exagusted?
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what is renewable energy?
a resource that cannot be exaughsted eg:wind,solar,tidal
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what is non-renewbale sources of energy?
a finite resource such as coal, gas, which have been mined from the earth + burnt to prouce energy
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what are fosil fuels?
a natural fuel such as coal,oil +gas which has been naturally formed over millions of years.
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give 4 disadvantages of renewables
1)can be an eye-saw, 2)can requir certain conditions, 3)can be expensive, 4)may damage habitats.
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what is fracking?
the extraction of gas trappe in shale rocks using high pressure liquids.
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what are 5 issues of fracking?
1)uses lots of water, 2)not very safe, 3)may contaminate ground water, 4)extra traffic and noise for locals, 5)is a fosil fuels so therefore is bad for the enviroment.
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what is water insecurity?
when water avalibility is not enough to ensure the population of an area good health, livelihood +earnings. this can be caused by lack of water or poor quality of water
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what is water security?
the reliable avalibilty of an acceptable quantity + quality of water for health, livelihood + production.
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what is economic water scarcity?
areas that have water but do not have the money to access it.
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what is physical water scacity?
not enough water due to natural factors such as climate.
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give 4 reasons why water consumption increasing?
1)more appliances, (dishwashers, washing machines ect), 2)to produce energy, 3)agriculture/gardening, 4)food production.
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give 6 factors affecting water avalibilty.
1)geology, 2)pullution, 3)climate + rainfall, 4)limited infrastructure, 5)over abstraction, 6)poverty.
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define 'limited infrastructure'
poorer countries may lack infrastration to transport water to ears of need,.
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define 'over abstraction'
taking too much water faster than it is being replaced mening it will run out.
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what is grey water?
water that has been recycled
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what is an aquifer?
where water is stored underground in porus rocks.
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what is a waterborne desise?
a desise that lives in dirty water.
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what is water conflict?
where diffrent parts of the world fight over their distribution of freash water.
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what are 3 advantages of china's water transfer scheme?
1)provides need water to a place of deficit, 2)can be used forfarming (irrigation), 3)prevents people drinking contaminated water.
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what are 2 disadvantages of the south china to north china transfer scheme?
1)some people will have to relocate, 2)has a large impact on the econonomy (costs $62 billion)
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give 4 simple ways to save water
1)reduce shower time,2)check for leaks, 3)retain nutrients from foods, 4)don't leave tap running when brushing your teeth.
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what is water conservation?
where you reduce waste + unnececary use, eg:water meters to encourage people to use water coursucaly
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what is ground water management?
ground water strored in underground quifers has to be managed to maintain quality + quantity.
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what is reusing water
water taken from bathroom sinks,baths,washing machines ect and are used again.
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what are taanakas?
underground storage systems that are usally 3-4 meters deap.
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how can taanakas increase water supply?
if water is collected over a pro-longed period of time and used in periods where there is very little rainfall.
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what is a johed?
a small earth dam which capture rain water
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how can joheds help to increase water supply?
extra supply of water
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what are pats?
xhannels which re-direct water from rivers that can be used for farming
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what is a sustainible water supply?
a water supply which is used couciously to ensure there is enough to last far into the future.
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how are the ppl in the wakel river basin project trying to create awareness?
throough education, through conservation of water + a cycle campaign.
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how has energy used changed from 1990 to more recently
coal has decreased, renewables increased
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Other cards in this set
what is a constructive wave?
a wave which builds up land, deposits material (stronger swash)
what is a destructive wave?
what is a swash?
what is a backwash?