Geography Key terms (Water and Carbon cycle)

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Hydrology
The study of water on the surface of the Earth
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Watershed
Edge of the drainage basin
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Water budget
Overall balance of inputs and outputs in a drainage basin over time
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Saturated
All the available spaces between the soil particles are filled with water
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Water table
The level of the top of the saturated soil beneath the ground
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Response
The way that a river following the input of precipitation: some rivers rise quickly and are said to be 'flashy' others rise and fall more slowly
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Infiltration capacity
Rate at which water is able to pass through a soil (measured im mm/hr)- this will be high for a sandy soil; lower for a clay soil
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Impermeable
Surface that does no allow water to pass through it
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Permeable
A surface that aloows water to pass through it
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Channel flow
Water held in the channel as it moves through the drainage basin. Will also act as temporary storage
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Organic
Matter derived from living things; bith plant and animal residues
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Non-organic
Compounds that derive from non-living matter
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Sedimentary rocks
Rocks resulting from heat and pressure compressing and consolidating depositional material; they most often firm on seafloors (e.g. limestone, chalk and shale)
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Lithification
Process by which sediment sediments become compressed into soild rock (lithology) due to pressue (e.g. mud into shale, calcium carbonate into chalk and limestone)
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Fast carbon cycle
Relatively rapid transfers of carbon compounds over years, decades and centuries
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Slow carbon cycle
Transfers of carbon compounds over extendive timescales (possibly millions of years)
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Ocean-atmosphere exchange
Ability of the ocean to both absorb CO2 from, and release it to, the atmosphere, depending on ocean and atmosphere and atmospheric conditions
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Terrestrial
Applying to the land rather than air or water
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Marine
Applying to the land rather than air or water
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Methane hydrates
Crystalline structures within sediment deposits of continental shelves and polar seas consisting of methane loacked within an ice framework
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Feedback loop
Where an output may become an input into another part of the same system, instigating a further change in the output
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Anthropogenic
Impacts as a consequence of human activity
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Greenhouse gas
A gas that absorbs infrared radiation and contributes to the warming of the atmosphere, such as methane and carbon dioxide
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Albedo
Reflectivity of surfaces that redirects shortwave solar readiation back into space with linited heat absorption; ice sheets and sea ice have a high albedo
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Marine calcification
Uptake of soluble carbon compoundds by marine creatures and conversion into solid carbonate compounds
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Carbon budget
Surplus or deficit of carbon once carbon output is subtracted from carbon input
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Flux
A flow of gas, liquid or soild matter resulting in a transfer between two locations
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Phytoplankton
The 'plant' form of plankton using sunlight in surface waters to photosynthesize carbon dioxide into sugars
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Zooplankton
The 'animal' form of planketon that canbe found at a range of depths and feeds on phytoplankton and its remains
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Carbon pump
Natural energy force resulting in a carbon flux; both gravity and descending cold currents transfer plankton remains from oceans surface to seafloors in the ocean pump
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Biogeochemical
Systems in which chemicals are transferred between lving organisms and the environments
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Carbonation
The chemical conversion of solid carbonated compounds to soluble bicarbonate compounds
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Hydrocarbon
A wide range of chemical compounds based in carbon and hydrogen
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Regime
The pattern of flow of a river, influenced by its catchment characteristics and the climate
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Riparian
Habitats associated with the land alongside flowing water
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Edge of the drainage basin

Back

Watershed

Card 3

Front

Overall balance of inputs and outputs in a drainage basin over time

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

All the available spaces between the soil particles are filled with water

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The level of the top of the saturated soil beneath the ground

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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