Geography

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What are waves created by?
Wind blowing over the sea
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What is the distance a wave has travelled called?
Fetch
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What is it called When a wave breaks on a beach it and is washed up the beach.
Swash
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Whats it called when a wave rushes back down a beach towards the sea?
Backwash
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When does a constructive wave occur?
when the swash is stronger than the backwash.
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Whats it called when Waves bring with them bits of rock and sand that grind down the cliffs?
abrasion
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Whats is called when Waves bring with them bits of rock and sand that grind down the cliffs
attrition
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When is deposition likely to occur?
when constructive waves enter an area of shallow water or a sheltered area and where there is longshore drift.
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Which of the following coastal features is NOT created through erosion? Headlands, Tombolos, Bays or Caves
Tombolo
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what type of waves causes erosion?
destructive
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What coastal feature is sometimes created when waves erode a headland?
cave
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What's Old Harry in Dorset an example of?
stack
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what Wooden barriers built at right-angles to the beach called?
Groynes
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What coastal defence can protect the base of cliffs against erosion and can prevent coastal flooding?
Sea Wall
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Whats it called when you allow areas of coastline to erode and then flood naturally?
Managed retreat
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Where are glaciers found?
at high latitude and at high altitude
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What is the formation of glaciers and the process by which they shape the landscape around them called?
glaciation
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whats it called When rocks and stones become frozen to the base and sides of the glacier and are removed from the ground as the glacier moves
plucking
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whats it called when rocks and stones, picked up by the glacier, are rubbed against the bedrock at the bottom and to the side of the glacier?
Abrasion
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whats it called when glacial water enters cracks in the rock around it and the temperature changes a continual process weakens the rock.
freeze-thaw
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When a corrie glacier moves away from the headwall it causes a large crevasse to form. whats it called?
Bergschrund
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What's it called When a glacier is formed snowflakes become compact and rounded as more snow falls on top of them?
firn
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Glaciers and glacial processes usually cut what sort of valley?
U shaped valleys
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What are the long lakes found at the bottom of deep glacial valleys called?
Ribbon lake
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what are the scratches left behind when a glacier has eroded a rock called?
striations
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whats it called When three or more corries and aretes meet?
Pyramidal Peak
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Which part of the Earth is directly below the crust?
Mantle
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Which part of the Earth is the hottest?
Inner core
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What material makes up the mantle?
Magma
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At a conservative plate boundary land is what?
destroyed
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hat occurence is common along a conservative plate boundary?
Earthquakes
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The Himalayas were formed on what kind of plate boundary?
Destructive
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The Mid-Atlantic Ridge or chain of volcanoes formed underneath the Atlantic Ocean is created by what kind of plate boundary?
constructive
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What are fold mountains are formed by?
Convergent (compressional) plate movement
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What term is used to describe rocks being folded upwards?
Anti-cline
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What is an earthquake?
the shaking and vibration of the Earth's crust due to movement of the Earth's plates.
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At what sort of plate boundaries might earthquakes take place?
all plate boundaries
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What causes earthquakes?
Earthquakes are caused when tension is released inside the Earth's crust.
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What's the point inside the Earth where the pressure is released called?
focus
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state what a seismometer measures?
The vibrations caused by an earthquake
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The strength or magnitude of an earthquake is measured using what?
Richter Scale
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What is a primary effect of an earthquake?
Impacts as a direct result of the ground shaking
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What is a volcano?
A cone-shaped mountain or hill formed by eruptions of lava and ash
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Where do volcanic eruptions tend to take place?
constructive and destructive plate boundaries
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What's a volcano that is flat and wide called?
shield volcano
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A cone volcano is most commonly found at which type of plate boundary?
destructive
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which type of volcano often erupts with a mix of steam, ash, rock and dust, causing a pyroclastic flow?
composite volcano
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whats a A volcano which erupts 1000 km3 of material called?
a supervolcano
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what's a supervolcano is shaped like?
a depression
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state an example of a supervolcano?
yellowstone
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Population distribution is a term that refers to what?
Population distribution is a term that refers to the way in which people spread across a given area.
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Geographers study population distribution at what scales?
Local, regional, national and global
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Patterns of population distribution tend to be what?
uneven
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The distribution of population is usually measured by calculating what?
population density of an area.
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How is population density calculated?
total population divided by total land area.
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When people are attracted to an area it becomes densely populated. Factors that influence this are what?
Factors that influence people's attraction to an area include temperate climates, good supplies of natural resources and fertile land.
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The populations in LEDCs are usually doing what?
increasing rapidly
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Most LEDCs are in stage two or three of the demographic transition model, this means what?
this means they have high birth rates and falling death rates, due to improving health care and greater access to modern medicine.
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To try to halt fast population growth, China introduced what policy?
One-child policy
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Many areas in Europe have a low fertility rate. The reasons for this are what?
people may choose careers rather than starting a family.
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A pro-natalist policy means what?
goverment encourages people to have children
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Information about national and local population characteristics can be collected through the use of what?
A cencus
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The three main factors that cause population change to a specified area are what?
the number of births, the number of deaths and the number of people that migrate
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The natural increase of a population is the difference between the country's birth rate and what?
Death Rate
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How is the world's population changing?
Rapidly Increasing
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Does the rate of population growth tend to be higher in MEDCs or LEDCs?
LEDC's
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What does population structure refer to?
the composition of people living in an area in terms of the number of males and females of different age groups.
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What is a population pyramid?
A population pyramid is a graphical representation of the population structure of a whole country, individual town, city or village.
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what is tourism
one of the world's largest industries.
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Tourism can help what?
a country's economy and infrastructure.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the distance a wave has travelled called?

Back

Fetch

Card 3

Front

What is it called When a wave breaks on a beach it and is washed up the beach.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Whats it called when a wave rushes back down a beach towards the sea?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When does a constructive wave occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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