Genetics Definitions

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: i3lena
  • Created on: 25-03-14 17:07
Gene
a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic
1 of 31
Allele
a specific form or a variation of a gene
2 of 31
Genome
the complete set of an organism's base sequences
3 of 31
Locus
the particular position of a gene on homologous chromosomes
4 of 31
Mutatuon
a random, rare change in genetic material
5 of 31
Diploid cell
a cell which contains the full chromosome number
6 of 31
Haploid cell
a cell with half the number of chromosomes
7 of 31
Homologous chromosomes
a pair of chromosomes of the same shape and size that carry the same genes
8 of 31
Nondisjunction
a process by which two or more homologous chromosomes stick together instead of seperating
9 of 31
Karyotype
a photograph of the chromosomes found in a cell arranged according to a standard format
10 of 31
Genotype
the symbolic representation of a pair of alleles possessed by an organism
11 of 31
Phenotype
the characteristics or traits of an organism
12 of 31
Dominant allele
an allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is paired with the same allele or a different one
13 of 31
Recessive allele
an allele that has an effect on the phenotype only when present in the homozygous state
14 of 31
Co-dominant alleles
pairs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in a heterozygote
15 of 31
Homozygous
having two identical alleles of a gene
16 of 31
Heterozygous
having two different alleles of a gene
17 of 31
Carrier
an individual who has a recessive allele of a gene that does not have an effect on their phenotype
18 of 31
Test cross
the testing of a suspected heterozygote plant or animal by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive
19 of 31
Sex linkage
any genetic trait whose allele has its locus on the X or the Y chromosome
20 of 31
Law of Independent Assortment
When gametes are formed, the separation of one pair of alleles between the daughter cells is independent of the separation of another pair of alleles.
21 of 31
Chiasma(ta)
the place(s) where two homologous chromosomes connect to each other before crossing over
22 of 31
Linkage group
a group of genes inherited together because they are found on the same chromosome
23 of 31
Polygenic inheritance
when two or more genes influence the expression of one trait
24 of 31
Continuous variation
when an array of possible phenotypes can be produced
25 of 31
Gene transfer
the technique of taking a gene out of one organism and placing it in another organism
26 of 31
Endonuclease(s)
restriction enzyme(s) that recognize a specific sequence of base pairs along the DNA molecule and cut it
27 of 31
Clone
a group of genetically identical organisms or a group of cells artificially derived from a single parent
28 of 31
Reproductive cloning
the cloning of an entire individual
29 of 31
Therapeutic cloning
the cloning of a cell or a group of cells
30 of 31
Stem cell research
the branch of lab work which investigates therapeutic cloning
31 of 31

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

a specific form or a variation of a gene

Back

Allele

Card 3

Front

the complete set of an organism's base sequences

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the particular position of a gene on homologous chromosomes

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a random, rare change in genetic material

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Chapter 4+10 resources »