Genetics

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Purines
Adenine and Guanine
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Pyrimidines
Thymine, Cytosine and Uracil
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Short arm of chromosome
p
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Chromatin
A complex combination of DNA and proteins that make up chromosomes
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Long arm of chromosome
q
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Transcription
Synthesis of RNA molecules that are complimentary in sequence to a DNA template
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Trabslation
Synthesis of a polypeptide (protein) under the direction of mRNA
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Codon
One nucleotide triplet
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Double helix
Two DNA strands held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs
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Nucleic Acid
Comprises a monosaccharide (ribose or deoyribose), a phosphate group and nitrogenous bases
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Methione (ATG)
Start codon
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TAA/TAG/TGA
Stop codons
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Exons
Piece of DNA that codoes for a polypeptide
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Intron
Piece of DNA that codes for nothing and is spliced out prior to translatio
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mRNA
Messanger RNA codes for proteins. Requires RNA Polymerase ||
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rRNA
Ribosomal RNA is a component or ribosome required for protein synthesis. Requires RNA Polymerase |
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tRNA
Transfer RNA SERVES s adapters between mRNA and amino acids. Requires RNA Polymerase |||
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snRNA
Small nuclear RNA serve number of functions e.g. pre-mRNA splicing. Requires RNA Polymerase || and |||
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snoRNA
Small nucleolar RNA process and modify rRNA. Requie RNA Polymerase ||
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Prophase
First stage of mitosis in whjch the chromatin becomes condensed and the separate chromatids become visable through a light microscope.
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Prometaphase
The second step of Mitosis in which the nuclear envelope breaks down and the chromosomes each containing wo chromatids atattch to the spindle apparatus.
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Metaphase
The third stage od Mitosis in which the chromosomes line up in the middle of th cell known as the equatorial position.
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Anaphase
The fourth stage of Mitosis in which the chromatids separate and move to opposite poles.
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Telophase
The fifth stage of Mitosis in which a nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromatids, nucleoli appear and the chromosomes become less compact. The spindle apparatus dissapears and there remains two nuclei in a single cell.
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Mitosis
A single nucleus gives rise to two nuclei that are genetically identical to each other an to the parent nucleus. Knon as the M phase of the cell cycle.DR
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Interphase
Comprises the G1,S andG2 phases of the cell cycle. This is the phase in which the cell is replicatd via translation and transcription.
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G1 phase
The gap phase in which there is a growth of proteins and organelles.
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G1-to-S transition
This is where DNA replication and cell divison is most important.
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S phase
This is the phase in which DNA replication occurs. Each chromosome is replicated and then consists of two sister chromatids which remain joined together until after mitosis in which they become two daughter cells after segregation.
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G2 phase
The cell makes preparations for Mitosis durin this phase such as assembling structures neccessary for moving chromatids to opposite ends of the dividing cell.
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Cytokinesis
The final step of Mitosis in which the cells cytoplasm is divided after nuclear division has occured. A contractile ring compossed of microfilaments of actin and myosin form a ring on the cytoplasmic surface o the plasma membrane.
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Helicase
unwinds parental DNA double helix.
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Primase
Begins synthesis of the RNA primer.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Thymine, Cytosine and Uracil

Back

Pyrimidines

Card 3

Front

p

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A complex combination of DNA and proteins that make up chromosomes

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

q

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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