theories

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Lakoff
DEFICIT- the theory that the male way of speaking is the normative and the female departs from the norm. claims women’s language suggests confidence.
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Zimmerman and West
DOMMINANCE- recorded all interruptions made in one conversation which he found 97% were made by men.
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Deborah Tannen
DIFFERENCE- mixed gender communication. She explained “male-female miscommunication” by claiming male-female speech is “cross-cultural communication”
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Janet Holmes
CONFLICT with DEFICIT- tag questions are not a sign of uncertainty but a sign of politeness helping keep the conversation going.
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Jane Mills
CONFLICT with DEFICIT- sees feminine styles of speech as a mechanism of social control. This meant that women try to be “nice” and “lady-like” and carefully monitor their behaviour to ensure that it was appropriate.
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Dale Spencer
DOMINANCE- she identifies power with male patriarchal order in society. She states that language embodies structure which sustains male power.
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Geoffrey Beattie
CONFLICT with DOMINANCE- interruptions are not always reflective of dominance. They often reject interest and support.
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O’Barr and Atkins
CONFLICT with DEFICIT- claimed that women’s language was used equally as much by men and that it indicated a lack of power rather than gender in the courtroom.
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Jennifer Coates
DIFFERENCE- Girls and boys tend to belong to same-sex friendship groups when growing up and subsequently level up different styles of speaking.
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Koenraad Kuiper
DIFFERENCE- men pay less regard to the need to save face and use insults in a way of expressing solidarity.
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Jane Pilkington
DIFFERENCE- women in same-sex conversations were collaborative and used positive politeness strategies. She found that men’s same-sex conversations were a lot less collaborative, complimentary and less supportive.
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Jenny Cheshire
DIFFERENCE- she found that boys used the non-standard forms, more frequently than girls did. She concluded variation is controlled both by social and linguistic factors.
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Pamela Fishman
DIFFERENCE- said that although women use tag questions more, they are not used due to uncertainty but to sustain conversation as men are reluctant to do the ‘**** work’
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Drew and Heritage
Talk at work- key differences between everyday conversations and workplace talk.
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George Yule
Speech is a form of social identity and indicates social groups or speech communities
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Zdenek Salzmann
Most members of society belong to several speech communities. Members of the same speech communities share enough characteristics of pronunciation and grammar
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Hewings and Hewings
Discourse communities- a group of people who share a +certain language, using practices.
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John Swales
Discourse communities- groups of people that have similar goals or purposes and use language to achieve them.
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Lakoff
Politeness principle- giving options to other participants.
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Fairclough
Instrumental power- enforces authority and is imposed by laws, state, conventions and organisations.
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Giles
Argues that ‘when people interact they adjust their speech, their vocal patterns and their gestures to accommodate to others”
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Thornborrow
Language establishes identity
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Labov
Marthas vineyard
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Crystal
Celebrity cultures influence our speech- so Brad Pitt
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Gary Ives
Two case studies in London + Bradford. In each study one participant was questioned and subsequently disused their language and used their dialect
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Jenny Cheshire and Viv Edwards
Found that people used ‘them’ as a demonstrative adjective- ‘them ones’
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Trugill
Speakers of RP are perceived as naughty and rude
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Thomas Pear
People have different perspectives of others based on their accents
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Giles
Judge people by their accents- dressed people up
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Choy and Dodd
Teachers made judgements on student’s ability and personality based on the way they speak
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

DOMMINANCE- recorded all interruptions made in one conversation which he found 97% were made by men.

Back

Zimmerman and West

Card 3

Front

DIFFERENCE- mixed gender communication. She explained “male-female miscommunication” by claiming male-female speech is “cross-cultural communication”

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

CONFLICT with DEFICIT- tag questions are not a sign of uncertainty but a sign of politeness helping keep the conversation going.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

CONFLICT with DEFICIT- sees feminine styles of speech as a mechanism of social control. This meant that women try to be “nice” and “lady-like” and carefully monitor their behaviour to ensure that it was appropriate.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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