GCSE Chemistry Keywords

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Acid
A compound that has a pH value lower than 7
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Acid Rain
Rain containing dissolved sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
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Activational Energy
The minimum amount of energy required to cause a reaction
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Alkali
A compound that has a pH higher than 7 and is soluble in water
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Alkali Metals
The six metals in group 1 of the periodic table
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Alkane
A saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH2n+2
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Alkene
An unsaturated hydrocarbon in which there are one or more C=C doubles bonds
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Atmosphere
The layer of gas surrounding the Earth
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Atom
The smallest chemical particle of an element
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Atom Economy
A measure of the amount of reactants in a chemical reaction that end up as useful products; usually expressed as a percentage
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Brine
A solution of sodium chloride in water
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Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed itself
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Catalytic Converter
A device fitted to a car exhaust to reduce the emissions of air pollutants
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Chemical Synthesis
The process by which raw materials are made into useful products
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Chromatography
A technique used to seperate different compounds in a mixture according to how well they dissolve in a particular solvent
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Collision Theory
A principle that helps to explain rates of reaction. For a reaction to occur, particles increase the frequency or energy of collisions will speed up a reaction
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Combustion
A chemical reaction that occurs when fuels burn in oxygen, releasing heat
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Compound
A substance consisting of two ot more different elements chemically combined
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Covalent Bond
A bond between two atoms in which the atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
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Crude Oil
A liquid mixture of hydrocarbons found in rocks
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Current
The rate of flow of an electrical charge, measured in amperes (A)
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Denatured Enzyme
An enzyme that has had its shape destroyed by heat and no longer catalyse reactions
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Diamond
A form of pure carbon in which each atom is bonded to four other atoms to give a very hard substance
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Diatomic Molecule
A molecule that only exists in pairs of atoms
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Displacement
The process that occurs during a chemical reaction when a more reactive element will swap places with a less reactive element within a compound
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Dynamic Equilibrium
In a reversible reaction, when the rate of the forwards reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction
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Electrolysis
The process by which an electric current causes a solution to undergo chemical decomposition
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Electrolyte
The molten or aqueous solution of an ionic compound used in electrolysis
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Electron
A negatively charged particle found orbiting the nucleus of an atom of an element
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Electron Configuration
The arrangement of electrons in fixed shells/energy levels around the nucleus of an atom of an element
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Element
A substance that consists of one type of atom
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Endothermic
A chemical reaction that takes in heat from its surroundings so that the products have more energy than the reactants
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Enzyme
A protein that speeds up the rate of reaction in living organisms (a catalyst in living things)
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Erosion
When rocks are broken down by weathering and transported away by water or wind
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Ester
An organic compound that is made by reacting an alcohol and a carboxylic acid
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Evaporation
When a liquid turns into a gas
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Exothermic
A chemical reaction that gives out energy (heat) to its surroundings so that the products have less energy that the reactants
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Fermentation
The process by which yeast converts sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide through anaerobic respiration
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Fertiliser
A substance added to soil to improve the crop yield
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Fraction
A mixture of hydrocarbons with similar boiling points that is seperated from crude oil
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Fractional Distillation
The process used to seperate the fractions in crude oil using boiling points
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Graphite
A form of pure carbon in which each atom is bonded to three other atoms to create a structure made of sheets that can slide other each other and conduct electricity
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Green Chemistry
The production of a chemicals bases on principles that can lead to a more sustainable process
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Greenhouse Gas
Gas in the Earth's atmosphere that absorbs radiation and stops it from leaving the Earth's atmosphere
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Group
A vertical column of elements in the periodic table
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Halogen
One of the five non-metals in group 7 of the periodic table
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Hazard
Something that can cause harm. In chemistry, hazards are often chemicals and we use symbols to identify different types of hazard, e.g. flammable, corrosive etc.
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Hydrocarbon
A compound made of carbon and hydrogen atoms only
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Hydrosphere
Contains all the water on Earth including rivers, oceans, lakes etc.
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Intermolecular Force
The attractive force between two molecules
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Ion
A particle that has a positive or negative electrical charge
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Ionic Bond
The process by which two or more atoms lose of gain electrons to become charged ions
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Ionic Compound
A compound consisting of charged particles called ions. Ionic compounds are (nearly always) made from a metal and a non-metal
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Life Cycle Assessment
A multi-step analysis of the environmental impact of an object from manufacture through to disposal
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Lithosphere
The rigid outer layer of the Earth made up of the crust and the part of the mantle just below it
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Mineral
A pure solid element or compound that is found in the Earth's crust
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Monomer
A small hydrocarbon molecule containing a double bond
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Nanometre
A millionth of a millimetre
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Nanoscale
A term used to describe things that happen at a very small scale in which objects are the size of a few atoms
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Nanotechnology
The control and production of materials on a very small scale
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Neutralisation
A reaction between an acid and a base that forms a neutral solution
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Neutron
A particle found in the nucleus of atoms that has no electric charge
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Nucleus
The small central core of an atom consiting of protons and neurtons
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Ore
A naturally occurring mineral, from which it's economically viable to extract a metal
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Osmosis
The movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution
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Oxidation
The addition of oxygen or the removal of electrons
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Oxidise
To add oxygen to an element or compound, or to remove electrons
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Period
A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
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Plasticizer
A material added to a plastic to make it more bendy
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Pollutant
A chemical that can harm the environment and health
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Polymer
A giant long-chained hydrocarbon
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Polymerisation
The joining of monomers to make a polymer
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Precipitate
The solid formed in a reaction between two liquids
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Precipitation
A type of reaction in which a solid is made when two liquids are mixed
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Product
The substance made in a chemical reaction
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Property
A descriptive word than can be used when talking about materials and the ways that they behave, e.g. high melting point, good conductor of electricity etc.
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Proton
A positively charged particle found in the nucleus of atoms
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Qualitative Analysis
A form of analysis used to find out whether a substance is present in a sample
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Quantitative Analysis
A form of analysis used to find out the amount of a substance present in a sample
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Reactant
The substance at the start of a chemical reaction
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Relative Atomic Mass
The average mass of an atom of an element compared to the twelfth of a carbon atom
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Relative Formula Mass
The sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in a molecule
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Renewable
A source that will not run out
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Retention Time
The time taken for substances to pass through a chromatographic system
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Rf Value
A value used in chomatography to identify a substance by comparison with a reference source. It's calculated by dividing the distance travelled by the substance by the distance travelled by the solvent
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Salt
The product of a chemical reaction between a base and an acid
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Saturated (Hydrocarbon)
A hydrocarbon molecule with no double bonds
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Sedimentary Rock
A type of rock which is made from layers of sediment (mud) that settle out in still water, such as the ocean. Layers build up and are compressed and cemented together
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Sedimentation
When particles of solid that have been carried by a river settle out on the bottom of a river or ocean
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Sodium Chloride
Also known as 'common salt', this compound is the most abundant compoung in seawater and can also be made by reacting sodium with chloride
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Solvent
A liquid that can dissolve another substance to produce a solution
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Surface Area
The area on the outside of a particle that is exposed to another reactant
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Sustainable
Capable of being continued with minimal long-term effect on the environment
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Titration
A method used to find the concentration of an acid or alkali
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Unsaturated
A term used to describe alkenes that identifies the presence of a C=C double bond
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Yield
The amount of product obtained from a reaction
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Biofuel
A fuel that's derived from plant or animal oil rather than from a fossil fuel
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Crystalline
A solid formed by a regular, repeating 3D arrangement of particles
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Distillation
A process used to seperate liquids by evaporation followed by condensation to produce a pure liqiud
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Reflux
A process of continuous heating without the loss of volatile substances (continuous evaporation and condensation)
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Wet Scrubbing
When acidic compounds such as sulfur dioxide are removed from power station emission gases by reacting with a solution of an alkali or a mixture of a base and water
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Card 2

Front

Rain containing dissolved sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides

Back

Acid Rain

Card 3

Front

The minimum amount of energy required to cause a reaction

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A compound that has a pH higher than 7 and is soluble in water

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The six metals in group 1 of the periodic table

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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