GCSE AQA Chemistry Flashcards C2

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Fill in the missing word(s): Positive ions are attracted to the ____________________.
Negative electrode.
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What is the molten substance or solution used in electrolysis called?
Electrolyte.
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Define electrolysis.
Splitting apart an ionic compound using electricity.
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Fill in the missing word(s): Ammonia dissolves in water to produce _____________.
An alkaline solution (ammonium ions + hydroxide ions).
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Give one use of ammonium salts.
Fertilisers.
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Fill in the missing word(s): Negative ions are attracted to the _____________
Positive electrode.
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At the positive electrode, do negative ions gain or lose electrons?
They LOSE electrons.
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At the negative electrode, do positive ions gain or lose electrons?
They GAIN electrons.
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How can a precipitate be removed from a liquid?
It can be removed through filtration.
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Why are cadmium ions removed from waste water?
They are toxic.
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Fill in the missing word(s): Insoluble salts can be made by a _________ reaction.
Precipitation.
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Define a precipitation reaction.
A reaction where a solid forms; suspended in a liquid or aqueous solution.
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What is the equation for producing copper sulfate crystals?
Copper Oxide + Sulfuric Acid ----> Copper Sulfate + Water.
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What are the steps for making copper sulfate?
-Add copper oxide to warmed sulfuric acid and stir. -Keep adding copper oxide until an excess is seen (undissolved copper oxide). -Filter to remove excess copper oxide. -Evaporate the water from the solution to leave copper sulfate crystals.
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How can you produce a soluble salt?
React an acid and an alkali together.
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What is the ionic equation for a neutralisation reaction?
H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) -----> H2O (l)
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Define a neutralisation reaction.
Where an acid and an alkali react together to form salt and water.
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State the 4 different state symbols.
-Solid (s) -Liquid (l) -Gas (g) -Aqueous (aq) [dissolved in water]
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What dissolved ions does an acid contain?
H+ ions.
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What dissolved ions does an alkaline contain?
OH- ions.
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What is the difference between a base and an alkali?
An alkali is a soluble base, a base is insoluble.
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Define the pH scale.
A measure of the acidity or alkanicity of a solution.
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Define a reversible reaction.
A reaction that can go in either direction; endothermic in one direction, exothermic in the other.
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Give 2 examples of endothermic reactions.
-Electrolysis -Cool-packs used in sport.
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Define an endothermic reaction.
An endothermic reaction takes in heat from its surroundings - it cools down.
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Define an exothermic reaction.
Where heat energy is given out.
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What are the two equations for rate of reaction?
1) Rate of Reaction = Amount of reactant used ÷ Time. 2) Rate of Reaction = Amount of product formed ÷ time.
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How does gas pressure affect rate of reaction?
Increased gas pressure = increased number of collisions, and more collisions mean a faster rate of reaction.
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How does surface area affect rate of reaction?
An increased surface area means more collisions take place, and more collisions mean a faster rate of reaction.
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How does concentration affect the rate of reaction?
A higher concentration means more collisions take place, and more collisions mean a faster rate of reaction.
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How does temperature affect the rate of reaction?
A higher temperature mean a faster reaction, as the particles have more energy when they collide with each other, and more collisions means a faster rate of reaction.
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What has to happen for a reaction to take place?
The particles must collide with sufficient energy to break the existing bonds (collision theory).
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Define a catalyst.
A catalyst speeds up the rate of reaction without being used up, by lowering the activation energy.
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Give two examples of catalysts.
-Iron is a catalyst to make ammonia. -Nickel is a catalyst for making margarine.
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Give an example of an exothermic reaction.
Metal + Acid ---> Salt + Hydrogen.
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Why do we need to speed up chemical reactions?
In industry, slow reactions are speeded up to increase productivity.
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What gas is produced in the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution?
Hydrogen (at the negative electrode), and Chlorine (at the positive electrode).
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Define electroplating.
Using electrolysis to create a thin layer of metal over the surface of an object.
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What does OIL RIG stand for?
Oxidation Is Loss (of electrons), Reduction Is Gain (of electrons).
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What gas is produced at the negative electrode, if the metal is more reactive than hydrogen?
Hydrogen
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Give a use of the 3 products of electrolysis of sodium chloride.
-Hydrogen is used to make ammonia. -Chlorine is used to make bleach (or drinking water safe). -Sodium Hydroxide is used to make soap.
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What are the steps involved in producing aluminium? (6 marker).
-Aluminium ore reacted with cryolite. -Aluminium oxide heated - becomes molten. -Molten aluminium oxide is electrolysed. Aluminium ions attracted to the negative electrode. They are reduced, so lose electrons. Oxygen ions formed at positive electrode
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What does the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution produce?
Hydrogen gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide solution.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the molten substance or solution used in electrolysis called?

Back

Electrolyte.

Card 3

Front

Define electrolysis.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Fill in the missing word(s): Ammonia dissolves in water to produce _____________.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give one use of ammonium salts.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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