French Revolution

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Who was in the first estate?
The Clergy
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Who was in the second estate?
The Nobility
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Who was in the third estate?
Urban workers, the poor, lawyers, doctors, unskilled worker
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What were the Parlements?
A local council of law
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How many Parlements were there by 1780?
13
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What power the parlements have?
They could refuse to register and implement laws created by the king if the threatened the ancient regime
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What was the ancient regime?
The social and political system
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The king could over rule Parlements. But if he did what would be accused of?
Despotism.
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What was enlightenment?
The age of reason. The intellectual movement, Writers, philosophers and political thinkers began question the conventions of society.
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Name the three enlightenment writers?
Montesquieu, Voltare and Rousseu
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What were Montesquieu's views?
He challenged the estate system of ancient regieme. He favoured the British model of government.
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What were Voltare views?
He favoured the Britsh government. He was a major advoate of freedom of expression. He was a critic of the power of the Catholic church.
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What were Rousseu views?
Argued that everyone within society had the right to collectivly choose the laws under which they live and that everyone should be equal.
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Why would Louis be unhappy with the englighnement writters at the time?
Because it questioned the ancient regime and divine right
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What ways were literature controlled during Louis reign?
Royal licenses had to be granted. New publications were supposed to be granted approval from the royal censor.
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How were radical ideas spread?
Printing presses were operated illegally and thriving black markets in books and pamplets.
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What limited the spread of radical ideas?
The French produced a list of banned books.
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What is direct tax?
Tax that everyone has to pay.
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What is indirect tax?
Tax that only applys when you buy a product, e.g tobacco.
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What is Taille Tax and who does it effect?
Land tax. Land owners of the third estate.
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What is Capitation Tax and who does it effect?
Property tax. Second and third estate.
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What is Vingtieme tax and who does it effect?
Income tax. Everyone, but could be avoided by the first and second estate.
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What is Gabelle Tax and who does it effect?
Salt tax. Third estate.
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What is Tabac Tax and who does it effect?
Tobacco. Smokers.
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How much did bread prices increase between August 1788 and March 1789?
Over 50 percent.
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What was La Ferme Generalee?
Over 55% of the states income was made up of indirect taxation and the La Ferme Generalee were incharge of collecting it. They had the right to forcibly remove property if someone failed to meet payments owed.
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How did La Ferme Generalee make the tax system unprofitable?
They had a strong reputation of coruption and little regulation.
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Who was the biggest employer in France?
The army.
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When did Louis XVI inherit the throne?
May, 1774.
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When did Louis marry Marie Antoinette?
April, 1770.
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When did Louis' brother die?
1761.
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What country was Marie Antoinette from?
Austria.
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What was Marie Antoinette unfamiliar with, that annoyed the French?
The complex etiquette system.
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When did Marie Antoinette give birth to her first child?
1778.
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When did Marie Antoinette give birth to a son?
1781.
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What was Marie Antoinette nickname?
Madame Déficit (debt).
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In what year was Marie Antoinette accused of stealing necklase worth a 1,600,000 livres?
1775.
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What did Marie Antoinette do with her days?
She spent them on a modl farm that was built at great expense.
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What is a physiocrat?
A group of economists during the 18th century and were influenced by enlightenment.
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Who was the controller general(financial minister) from 1774 to 1776?
Turgot.
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Who was the estate general(financial minister) from 1776 to 1781?
Necker.
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Who was the estate general(financial minister) from 1781 to 1783?
Joly Fleury.
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Who was the estate general(financial minister) from 1783 to 1787?
Charles Calonne.
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Who was the estate general(financial minister) from 1787 to 1788?
Archbishop Brienne.
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Who was the estate general(financial minister) from in 1788?
Necker.
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What were Turgots reforms?
Free trade, taking out loans, increasing efficiency of state finance, banning Corve and introducing property tax.
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What were Necker's reforms?
Replacing ministers with trained officials and producing the doctored, "report to the king".
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What were Calonne's reforms?
Sale of church land, universal property tax and free trade.
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When did Louis summon the Estate Generals?
August, 1789
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When did Abbe Sieyes publish "What Is The Third Estate?
January, 1789.
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What is the Cahiers de doleances and when was it drawn up?
March to April 1789.
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When did the Estate Generals convene?
5th of May 1789.
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When was the Tennis Court Oath?
20th June, 1789.
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When did the Seance Royal(royal session) take place and what did it lead to?
June 23rd 1789. The union of the three estate.
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How many people represented the First Esate at the Estate Generals meeting?
303. They were mainly parish priests.
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How many people represented the Second Esate at the Estate Generals meeting?
282. They were mainly nobilty.
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How many people represented the Third Esate at the Estate Generals meeting?
578. They were mainly lawyers.
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Why was the voting system a cotrovesty?
Because it was counted per estate not head, and as the first estate had similar intrests the third estate was often out numberd.
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What was the Estate Generals?
An assembly of representatives.
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What was the Cahiers de doleances?
A list of grievances.
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What was the Seance Royale?
A Royal Session.
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When was Louis born?
August 23, 1754.
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When did Louis inherit the throne?
1774.
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When was the French Revolution?
1789-1799.
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When was the Constituent Assembly?
23rd of June - 27th of June.
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When did Lafayette become commander of the national guard?
15th of July .
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When were the flour wars?
April to May 1775
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What were the flour wars?
A wave of rising across the country following an increase of grain prices.
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When was the day of the tiles?
7th of June 1788
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When was the great fear?
July - August 1789.
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When were the August Decrees?
4th of August - 11th of August.
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When were the October Days?
5th - 6th of October.
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When did the National Assembly approve the sale of church land?
November 1789.
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What happened at the storming of Bastille?
In July 14, 1789, when only seven prisoners were confined in the building, a crowd advanced on the Bastille with the intention of asking the prison governor, to release the arms and munitions stored there. However, the people stormed and captured the
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When was the storming of Bastille?
14th July 1789.
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What was the great fear?
A period of panic and riot by peasants and others amid rumors of an “aristocratic conspiracy” by the king and the privileged to overthrow the Third Estate.
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When was the American Revolution?
1776.
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What was the Declaration of the rights of men?
The basic principle of the Declaration was that all “men are born and remain free and equal in rights. It was the death warrent of the system of privilege
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When was the Declaration of the rights of men?
26th August 1789.
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What was the National Assembly also known as?
The Constituent Assembly.
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What is universal suffrage?
Everyone has the right to vote.
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What percentage of men could vote?
About 70%.
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Who was allowed to vote in France?
Men over 25, who had payed three unskilled work days in tax.
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What percentage of men were wealthy enough to become deputies?
10%
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In 1791 replaced the taxes with what?
A tax on the transfer of goods. A tax on commercial/business profit. A universal tax on land.
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Who didn't pay the tax on the transfer of goods?
Passive citizens.
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What were Passive citizens?
Citizens who couldn't vote.
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What were active citizens?
Citizens who could vote.
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When did the new taxation system come into affect?
January 1791.
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What was wrong with the paper currency?
It was over printed.
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When was the sale of the Catholic Church land legalized?
2nd of November 1789.
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How much was the church land sold worth?
400,000,000 Livers.
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How many Bishops took the oath of allegiance?
7/83.
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How many Priests took the oath of allegiance?
About half.
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What was the Paris Commune?
An administrative body responsible for governing Paris.
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What were the San- Culottes?
They were riotters.It was one of the first working class groups that incorporated both a political stance and a social condition.
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When were the National Assembly?
JUNE - JULY 1789
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When were the Constituent Assembly?
JULY 1789- SEPTEMBER 1791
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When were the Legislative Assembly?
SEPTEMBER 1791- SEPTEMBER 1792
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When were the National Convention?
SEPTEMBER 1792- OCTOBER 1795
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What led to the revolution?
Enlightenment ideas- Voltaire- favoured the British political system. Bad harvests-1778-87. Ancien Regime
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When was Bastille stormed?
14th July 1789
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What were the August Decrees?
The following were abolished Tithes Financial privileges Tax exemptions Seigneurial courts The Feudal System Venality Guild restrictions Personal subjection to a lord Corporate and provincial privileges
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When were the August Decrees?
4th -11th August 1789.
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When was the Civil Constitution of the Clergy?
12th July 1790
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When was the Flight to Varnnes?
21st of June 1791.
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What was the Flight to Varnnes?
After the The Civil Constitution of the Clergy Louis attempted to flee France. The royal family was caught and brought back to Paris. Many demanded Louis abdication from the throne.
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What political group was Robespierre a member of?
Jacobin
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When was Louis executed?
January 21, 1793
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When was Robespierre executed?
28th July 1794
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When didthe Convention ordered the levy of 30,000 conscripts to fight the First Coalition?
February 1793
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who was in the second estate?

Back

The Nobility

Card 3

Front

Who was in the third estate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the Parlements?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many Parlements were there by 1780?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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