forensics ; psychological explanations ; differential association theory

DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY
DFGDG
1 of 56
proposes individuals learn values / attitudes / techniques and motives for criminal behaviour through?
association with different people
2 of 56
- scientific basis
sddg
3 of 56
sutherland set himself the task of developing what?
specific principles that could explain all types of offending
4 of 56
theory designed to discriminate between which two individuals?
those that become criminals and those who don't
5 of 56
no matter?
race / class / ethnicity
6 of 56
- crime as a learned behaviour
dfgdf
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offending behaviour may be acquired in same way as other behaviour through?
processes of learning
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learning occurs most often through interactions with significant others child associates with like?
family / peer group
9 of 56
criminality arises from which two factors?
learned attitudes towards crime / learning of specific criminal acts
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- pro-criminal attitudes
dfgdf
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when a person is socialised into a group they will be exposed to wht?
values and attitudes towards law
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some values will be pro-crime others?
anti-crime
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what does sutherland argue about this balance?
if number pro-criminal attitudes person comes to acquire outweighs the number anti-crime they'll go on to offend
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learning process is same regardless of?
criminality or conformity to law
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differential association suggests it should be possible to do what?
mathematically preduct how likely it is an individual will commit crime
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if w have knowledge of?
frequency / intensity / duration of which exposed to deviant and non-deviant norms and values
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- learning criminal acts
dfgd
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in addition to pro-criminal attitude offender may also learn what?
techniques for committing crime
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as well as offering account of how crime may breed aming social groups his theory can also account for what?
why so many released convicts reoffend
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reasonable to assume that whilst inside prison inmates will do what?
learn specific techniques of offending from other, more experienced criminals they will want to put in practice
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this learning may occur in which two ways?
observation / imitation OR direct tuition from criminal peers
22 of 56
EVALUATION
DFGDF
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:) explanatory power
dfgdf
24 of 56
has an ability to account for crime where?
all sectors of society
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sutherland recognised what about some types of crime?
may be clustered like burglary
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but also case some crimes more prevalent where?
amongst more affluent groups in society
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particularly interested in what kind of crime?
white collar
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and how this may be a feature of middle-class social groups who share?
deviant norms and values
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:) shift of focus
dgdfg
30 of 56
successful in moving emphasis away from what accounts?
early biological
31 of 56
as well as away from those that explained offending as being product of?
individual weakness / immorality
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DAS draws attention to fact what may be more to blame than dysfunctional ppl?
dysfunctional social circumstances
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approach more desirable bc offers more realistic solution to problem of crime instead fo?
eugenics
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:( difficulty of testing
dfgdf
35 of 56
despite sutherlands promise to provide what?
scientific / mathematical framework within which future offending behaviour could be predicted
36 of 56
hard to see for instance number of pro-criminal attitudes person as been exposed to and?
how could be measured
37 of 56
theory built on assumption offending behaviour will occur when?
when pro-criminal values outweign anti-criminal
38 of 56
but without being bale to measure these it's difficult to know what?
at what point urge to offend is realised and criminal career triggered
39 of 56
theory doesn't provide satisfactory solution to isseus undermingn?
scientific credibility
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EVAL EXTRA
DGDFG
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:( alternative explanations
g
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suggested response of family is crucial in determining?
whether individual likely to engage in offending
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if family seen to support criminal activity amking seem legitimate and reasonable this becomes a major influence of?
child's value system
44 of 56
supported by fact offending behaviour seems to?
run in families
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farrington et al study one of the key findings was?
intergenerational crime
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also case in mednick et al study what about adoptees?
boys w/ crimnal adoptive parents and non-criminal biological parents more likely to offend than thoe with bio/adoptive parents non criminal
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what was it for criminal adoptive parents?
14.7%
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and non-criminal?
13.5%
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this illustrates importance of?
family influence
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:( individual differences
sdgd
51 of 56
not everyone exposed to criminal influences goes on to?
commit crime
52 of 56
sutherland took great care to point out what about crime?
should be considered on an individual case-by-case basis
53 of 56
there's danger with DAT of stereotyping who as 'unavoidably criminal'
those from impoverish crime ridden backgrounds
54 of 56
theory suggests what is sufficient to produce offending in those exposed?
exposure to enough pro-criminal values
55 of 56
and ignores what?
that ppl may choose not to offend despite this
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

proposes individuals learn values / attitudes / techniques and motives for criminal behaviour through?

Back

association with different people

Card 3

Front

- scientific basis

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

sutherland set himself the task of developing what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

theory designed to discriminate between which two individuals?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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