forensics ; psychological explanations ; differential association theory

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proposes individuals learn values / attitudes / techniques and motives for criminal behaviour through?
association with different people
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- scientific basis
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sutherland set himself the task of developing what?
specific principles that could explain all types of offending
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theory designed to discriminate between which two individuals?
those that become criminals and those who don't
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no matter?
race / class / ethnicity
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- crime as a learned behaviour
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offending behaviour may be acquired in same way as other behaviour through?
processes of learning
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learning occurs most often through interactions with significant others child associates with like?
family / peer group
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criminality arises from which two factors?
learned attitudes towards crime / learning of specific criminal acts
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- pro-criminal attitudes
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when a person is socialised into a group they will be exposed to wht?
values and attitudes towards law
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some values will be pro-crime others?
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what does sutherland argue about this balance?
if number pro-criminal attitudes person comes to acquire outweighs the number anti-crime they'll go on to offend
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learning process is same regardless of?
criminality or conformity to law
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differential association suggests it should be possible to do what?
mathematically preduct how likely it is an individual will commit crime
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if w have knowledge of?
frequency / intensity / duration of which exposed to deviant and non-deviant norms and values
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- learning criminal acts
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in addition to pro-criminal attitude offender may also learn what?
techniques for committing crime
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as well as offering account of how crime may breed aming social groups his theory can also account for what?
why so many released convicts reoffend
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reasonable to assume that whilst inside prison inmates will do what?
learn specific techniques of offending from other, more experienced criminals they will want to put in practice
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this learning may occur in which two ways?
observation / imitation OR direct tuition from criminal peers
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:) explanatory power
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has an ability to account for crime where?
all sectors of society
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sutherland recognised what about some types of crime?
may be clustered like burglary
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but also case some crimes more prevalent where?
amongst more affluent groups in society
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particularly interested in what kind of crime?
white collar
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and how this may be a feature of middle-class social groups who share?
deviant norms and values
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:) shift of focus
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successful in moving emphasis away from what accounts?
early biological
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as well as away from those that explained offending as being product of?
individual weakness / immorality
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DAS draws attention to fact what may be more to blame than dysfunctional ppl?
dysfunctional social circumstances
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approach more desirable bc offers more realistic solution to problem of crime instead fo?
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:( difficulty of testing
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despite sutherlands promise to provide what?
scientific / mathematical framework within which future offending behaviour could be predicted
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hard to see for instance number of pro-criminal attitudes person as been exposed to and?
how could be measured
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theory built on assumption offending behaviour will occur when?
when pro-criminal values outweign anti-criminal
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but without being bale to measure these it's difficult to know what?
at what point urge to offend is realised and criminal career triggered
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theory doesn't provide satisfactory solution to isseus undermingn?
scientific credibility
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:( alternative explanations
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suggested response of family is crucial in determining?
whether individual likely to engage in offending
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if family seen to support criminal activity amking seem legitimate and reasonable this becomes a major influence of?
child's value system
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supported by fact offending behaviour seems to?
run in families
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farrington et al study one of the key findings was?
intergenerational crime
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also case in mednick et al study what about adoptees?
boys w/ crimnal adoptive parents and non-criminal biological parents more likely to offend than thoe with bio/adoptive parents non criminal
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what was it for criminal adoptive parents?
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and non-criminal?
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this illustrates importance of?
family influence
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:( individual differences
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not everyone exposed to criminal influences goes on to?
commit crime
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sutherland took great care to point out what about crime?
should be considered on an individual case-by-case basis
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there's danger with DAT of stereotyping who as 'unavoidably criminal'
those from impoverish crime ridden backgrounds
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theory suggests what is sufficient to produce offending in those exposed?
exposure to enough pro-criminal values
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and ignores what?
that ppl may choose not to offend despite this
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


proposes individuals learn values / attitudes / techniques and motives for criminal behaviour through?


association with different people

Card 3


- scientific basis


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Card 4


sutherland set himself the task of developing what?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


theory designed to discriminate between which two individuals?


Preview of the front of card 5
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