Cold mountenous winds- the dense air flows down from the mountains to the lowlands chilling the ground as it passess over it.
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(Sandpaper effect)-The erosion of the bedrock by material carried by the glacier. The larger and more angular the bedload is, the greater potential for erosion.
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The ripping out of matewrial ftom the bedrock. The more freeze-thaw there has been, the more effective the plucking becomes. The material acn then be used for abrasion.
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Discontinuous scratch marks on a rock cause by abrasion
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Scratch marks on arock caused by abrasion
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Rock that has been plucked and made smooth by glaciers. Upstream side (stoss) is smooth because of abrasion but the downstream side (lee) is steeper and rougher because of plucking.
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Chemical weathering- calcium carbonate reacts with an acid water o form calcium bicarbonate which is soluble and removed in solution.
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Chemical weathering- H2O reacts with minerals (feldspars) to make clay minerals.
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Sediment deposited by a glacier.
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Armchair-shaped hollow surrounded by knife-edged ridges called aretes.
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A transitional stage between snow and ice.
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Movement of ice as it becomes too deep so unstable. It collapses and flows outwards.
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Have steep sides and a flat bottom also known as U-shaped valleys
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Rock fractures due to pressure release, exfoliation and dilation.
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Long, linear lakes which fill a glaciated trough e.g. Lake windermere in the Lake District.
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A small U-shaped valley formed by a small glacier that joins and hangs above a large U-shaped valley formed by a larger glacier.
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Angular sediment that collects at the foot of a mountain range. The rock fragments that form scree are usually broken off by freeze-thaw weathering.
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Glacially depositednmaterial that is unsorted, different sizes and has no distinct layer.
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Large boulders foreign to the local geology that have been left by the ice.
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Widespread and unstratified glacial deposit made of finely grained rock flour mixed with rocks of different sizes and shapes.
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Glacial deposits of poorly sorted loose rock fragments. They are lines of loose rock fragments which have been weathered from the valley sides above the ice, and have fallen downslope onto the ice.
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The lines of material lying near the valley sides.
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Where two two glaciers meet and the the lateral moraines of each join. It is found down the centre
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Material that is deposied at the top of a slow moing glacier.
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Where the snout stopped during the retreat of the ice front.
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The removal of material (ice etc.) from a glacier (by melting, evaporation and sublimation)
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A circular sink hole into a glacier. Can be used by meltwater entering a crevasse.
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Where till has deposited as small oval mounds.
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The melting of ice when making meltwater streams on the ice surface, within the ice and beneath the ice.
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Material dropped in glacial lakes, along lake shorelines and as lake deltas.
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Elongated ridges of coarse material (sands and gravels).
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Irregular mounds of bedded sands and grvels, arranged in a chaotic manner.
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Ground showing a pattern of stones, fissures, and vegetation, typically forming polygons, rings, or stripes caused by repeated freezing and thawing
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Isolated conical hills only found in periglacial areas. they form due to movement and freezeing of water under pressure. There are open system and closed system pingos.
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