Faith Bailey Geography- Miss R revision

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Katabatic winds
Cold mountenous winds- the dense air flows down from the mountains to the lowlands chilling the ground as it passess over it.
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Abrasion
(Sandpaper effect)-The erosion of the bedrock by material carried by the glacier. The larger and more angular the bedload is, the greater potential for erosion.
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Plucking
The ripping out of matewrial ftom the bedrock. The more freeze-thaw there has been, the more effective the plucking becomes. The material acn then be used for abrasion.
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Chatter marks
Discontinuous scratch marks on a rock cause by abrasion
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Striations
Scratch marks on arock caused by abrasion
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Roche montonnee
Rock that has been plucked and made smooth by glaciers. Upstream side (stoss) is smooth because of abrasion but the downstream side (lee) is steeper and rougher because of plucking.
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Carbonation
Chemical weathering- calcium carbonate reacts with an acid water o form calcium bicarbonate which is soluble and removed in solution.
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Hydrolysis
Chemical weathering- H2O reacts with minerals (feldspars) to make clay minerals.
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Till
Sediment deposited by a glacier.
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Cirques
Armchair-shaped hollow surrounded by knife-edged ridges called aretes.
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Neve
A transitional stage between snow and ice.
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Extrusion flow
Movement of ice as it becomes too deep so unstable. It collapses and flows outwards.
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Glacial troughs
Have steep sides and a flat bottom also known as U-shaped valleys
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Freeze-thaw weathering
Rock fractures due to pressure release, exfoliation and dilation.
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Ribbon lake
Long, linear lakes which fill a glaciated trough e.g. Lake windermere in the Lake District.
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Hanging valley
A small U-shaped valley formed by a small glacier that joins and hangs above a large U-shaped valley formed by a larger glacier.
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Scree
Angular sediment that collects at the foot of a mountain range. The rock fragments that form scree are usually broken off by freeze-thaw weathering.
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Unstratified material
Glacially depositednmaterial that is unsorted, different sizes and has no distinct layer.
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Erratics
Large boulders foreign to the local geology that have been left by the ice.
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Till
Widespread and unstratified glacial deposit made of finely grained rock flour mixed with rocks of different sizes and shapes.
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Moraines
Glacial deposits of poorly sorted loose rock fragments. They are lines of loose rock fragments which have been weathered from the valley sides above the ice, and have fallen downslope onto the ice.
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Lateral moraines
The lines of material lying near the valley sides.
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Medial moraines
Where two two glaciers meet and the the lateral moraines of each join. It is found down the centre
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Terminal moraine
Material that is deposied at the top of a slow moing glacier.
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Recessional moraines
Where the snout stopped during the retreat of the ice front.
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Ablation
The removal of material (ice etc.) from a glacier (by melting, evaporation and sublimation)
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Moulins
A circular sink hole into a glacier. Can be used by meltwater entering a crevasse.
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Drumlins
Where till has deposited as small oval mounds.
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Fluvioglacial deposits
The melting of ice when making meltwater streams on the ice surface, within the ice and beneath the ice.
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Prolonged drift
Material dropped in glacial lakes, along lake shorelines and as lake deltas.
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Eskers
Elongated ridges of coarse material (sands and gravels).
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Kames
Irregular mounds of bedded sands and grvels, arranged in a chaotic manner.
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Patterned ground
Ground showing a pattern of stones, fissures, and vegetation, typically forming polygons, rings, or stripes caused by repeated freezing and thawing
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Pingos
Isolated conical hills only found in periglacial areas. they form due to movement and freezeing of water under pressure. There are open system and closed system pingos.
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Comments

Mr A Gibson

Read, learn, revise, test! These flashcards are great for this topic. They have all the words you need and the definitions are good for those exam questions that ask for you to "state what is meant by..". Get revising!

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