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Unit 1
World at Risk…read more

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Natural hazard- natural event or process which affects
people( causing loss of life or injury, economic damage, etc.)
Hydro Meteorological: Geophysical:
-caused by running water and its -caused by earth processes
processes(hydro) and those associated with A. internal earth processes of tectonic origin
or caused by weather patterns. · earthquakes
· floods · tsunami
· hurricanes(tropical cyclones) · volcanic activity
· blizzards B.…read more

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The risks are getting worse in some countries because:
1. the frequency is increasing with climate change.
2. Vulnerability is increasing as a result of unsustainable development
leading to poor land use and environmental degradation.
3. The capacity to cope is decreasing owing to poverty and
Risk are lower in more developed countries because they have
recourses and technology to provide protection.
Shaped by underlying state of human development, includes
inequalities in income, opportunity and political power.…read more

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The number of people reporting natural disasters has risen sharply
since the 1960's
There has been a
significant rise in
disasters, rises in
floods storms and
even droughts
disasters ­ we
have seen a slight
increase in
reported, this could be because more people are living in hazardous
areas. The trend however fluctuates.
Biological Hazards ­ we have seen a slight increase this could be
linked to global warming which leads to more pests and disasters.…read more

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Reasons for this trends:
Land Pressure
Technological innovation
Economic growth
Economic development
Rapid urbanisation and growth of mega-cities
Political change
Population growth and change
However, the deaths are falling
Before a disaster ­ There is better mitigation (use of hazard proof/
climate proof structures) and improved disaster preparedness using
education, community training and high technology warning systems.
During a disaster ­ in many cases emergency responses have
improved with local participation in effective disaster relief
programmes (e.g.…read more

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Most common hazards
Worst impacts
Why are floods and windstorms increasing?
increased warming causes warm air to rise, creating convection cells-
which form hurricanes
increasing tempereatures increase evaporation, which in turn leads to
increasing rainfall- and therefore greater flooding
Boxing day tsunami 2004
Caused by submarine earthquake in Indian Ocean,
estimating 9.0 on rector scale, which caused a
tsunami which hit 2 hours after the earthquake, with
waves up to 30m sticking Indonesia within minutes.…read more

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Most frequent causes:
lighting strikes
How fire spreads:
Ground fires
dry leaf litter and things catch light and fire spreads through the
Crown fires
where fires spread through the tree tops
Spot fires
caused by burning embers landing away from the main fire and
starting new fires in their own right
Methods that have been used to cut deaths and increase safety
Controlled burning
Regular burning of leaf litter to reduce the fuel for the bushfires.…read more

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