F324 definitions

HideShow resource information
Delocalised electrons
shared between more than two atoms
1 of 36
Addition reaction
one in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
2 of 36
Substitution reaction
one in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms
3 of 36
Electrophile
an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-rich centre, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
4 of 36
Curly arrow
a symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of covalent bonds
5 of 36
Functional group
part of an organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions
6 of 36
Electronegativity
measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
7 of 36
Stem
longest carbon chain present in an organic molecule
8 of 36
Suffix
part of the name added after the stem
9 of 36
Redox reaction
one in which both reduction and oxidation take place
10 of 36
Reflux
continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry
11 of 36
Nucleophile
atom or group of atoms attracted to an electron-deficient centre, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
12 of 36
Esterification
reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water
13 of 36
Hydrolysis
reaction with water or hydroxide ions that breaks a chemical compound into two compounds
14 of 36
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
responsible for carrying cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the tissues
15 of 36
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
remove cholesterol from the arteries and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilisation
16 of 36
Peptide
compound made of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
17 of 36
Zwitterion
dipolar ionic form of an amino acid that is formed by the donation of a hydrogen ion from the carboxyl group to the amino group. Because both charges are present, there is no overall charge.
18 of 36
Isoelectric point
pH value at which the amino acid exists as a zwitterion
19 of 36
Condensation reaction
one in which two small molecules react together to form a larger molecule with the elimination of a small molecule such as water
20 of 36
Stereoisomers
species with the same structural formula but with a different arrangement of the atoms in space
21 of 36
Chiral carbon
carbon atom attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms
22 of 36
Optical isomers (enantiomers)
stereoisomers that are non-superimposible mirror images of each other
23 of 36
Condensation
reaction in which two small molecules react together to form a larger molecule, with the elimination of a small molecule such as water
24 of 36
Repeat unit
specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the structure over and over again
25 of 36
Biodegradable polymer
polymer that breaks down completely into carbon dioxide and water
26 of 36
Degradable polymer
polymer that breaks down into smaller fragments when exposed to light, heat or moisture
27 of 36
Pharmacological activity
beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter
28 of 36
Phase
physically distinctive form of a substance, such as the solid, liquid and gaseous states of ordinary matter
29 of 36
Mobile phase
phase that moves in chromatogrophy
30 of 36
Stationary phase
phase that doesn't move in chromatography
31 of 36
Adsorption
process by which a solid holds molecules of a gas or liquid or solute as a thin film on the surface of a solid or, more rarely, a liquid
32 of 36
Chromatogram
visible record showing the result of separation of the components of a mixture by chromatography
33 of 36
Rf =
distance moved by component/ distance moved by solvent front
34 of 36
Retention time
gas chromatography is the time for a component to pass from the column inlet to the detector
35 of 36
Chemical shift
scale that compares the frequency of an NMR adsorption with the frequency of the reference peak TMS at d = 0ppm
36 of 36

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

one in which a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule

Back

Addition reaction

Card 3

Front

one in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-rich centre, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of covalent bonds

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all F324 resources »