F322 DEFINITIONS

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Homologous Series
Series of organic compounds with the same functional group
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Functional Group
The part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions
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Alkane
Homologous series with the generic formula Cn H2n+2
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Alkene
Homologous series with the generic formula Cn H2n
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Displayed formula
Formula showing the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule
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Structural formula
Formula showing the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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Skeletal formula
Simplified organic formula
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Structural Isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but have a different structural arrangement
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Positional isomerism
Same carbon skeleton, but differ in the location of the functional groups on the chain
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Stereo isomers
Compounds with the same structural arrangement but different arrangement of atoms in a space
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E/Z Isomerism
Different groups are arranged differently around a carbon=carbon double bond
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Homolytic fission
Breaking of a covalent bond with one of the bonded electrons going to each atom
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Heterolytic fission
Breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to one of the atoms
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron
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Nucleophile
Atom that is attracted to an electron deficient atom
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Electrophile
Atom that is attracted to an electron rich centre/atom
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Addition reaction
Reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
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Substitution reaction
Atom/ group of atoms is replaced by other atoms
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Elimination reaction
Removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule
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Nucleophile substitution
Nucleophile is attracted to an electron deficient centre/atom, and donates a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
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Free-radical substitution
Substitution reaction but involving free radicals as the reactive intermediate
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Electrophilic addition
Electrophile is attracted to an electron rich centre/atom and accepts a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
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Fractional distillation
Separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ in boiling points
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Cracking
Breaking down of long-chained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter-chained alkanes/kenes
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Combustion
Burning in oxygen
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Incomplete combustion
Not enough oxygen to react all of the fuel, CO IS MADE
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PI bond
The reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by a sideways overlap of 2 p-orbitals
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Polymer
A long molecular chain built up from monomer units
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Monomer
A small molecule that combines with other monomers to form a polymer
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Volatility
Ease with which a liquid turns into a gas
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Reflux
Continuous boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture
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Distillation
Purifying a liquid by a process of heating and cooling
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Ester
Replacing a H with an alkyl/other organic group
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Esterification
Reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water
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Dehydration
Elimination reaction, water is removed; unsaturated molecule is formed
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Hydrolysis
Reaction with water or aqueous OH- that breaks a compound into 2
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Percentage yield
actual amount / Predicted amount x 100%
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Atom Economy
mass if desired / sum of product mass x 100%
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Exothermic
Enthalpy of products is smaller than reactants enthalpy
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Endothermic
Enthalpy of products is higher than reactants enthalpy
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Activation Energy
Minimum energy required to start a reaction by the breaking of bonds
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Energy Profile Diagram
Diagram for a reaction to compare the enthalpy between reactants and products
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Standard Conditions
PRESSURE: 100kPA TEMP: 25 degrees CONC: 1mol/dm3
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Standard state
Physical state of a substance under standard conditions
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Standard Enthalpy of Combustion
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a substance reacts completely with oxygen under standard conditions
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Standard enthalpy change of reaction
The enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar quantities expressed in an equation under standard conditions
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Standard enthalpy of formation
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states
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Specific heat capacity
Energy required to raise the temp of 1g of a substance by 1 degree
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Bond Enthalpy
Enthalpy change that takes place when the same bond in each molecule in 1 mole of a substance is broken
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Hess' Law
If a reaction can take place by more than one route and the initial and final conditions are the same, the total enthalpy change is the same for both
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Rate of Reaction
The change in concentration of a reactant or a product in a given time
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Boltzmann distribution
Distribution of energies of molecules at a particular temp, usually shown as a graph
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Dynamic Equilibrium
Exists in a closed system when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the reverse
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Le Chateliers Principle
When a system in dynamic equilibrium is subjected to a change, equilibrium will shift to minimise the change
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Catalyst
Increases a rate of a reaction without being used up in the process
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Troposphere
Lowest layer of the earth's atmosphere
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Stratosphere
Second layer of the earth's atmosphere - containing the ozone layer
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Ozone
Colourless unstable toxic gas with a pungent odour and powerful oxidising properties
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Catalytic converter
Device in an exhaust sytem containing a catalyst for converting polluting gases into less harmful ones
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Adsorption
Occurs when a gas is held to the surface of a solid
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Desorption
A substance is released from or through a surface.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical reactions

Back

Functional Group

Card 3

Front

Homologous series with the generic formula Cn H2n+2

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Homologous series with the generic formula Cn H2n

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Formula showing the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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