OCR AS Chemistry F322 Hydrocarbons Definitions

A definitions sheet for F322 module 1 - hydrocarbons and basic concepts

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  • Created on: 09-04-12 16:39
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F322 Definitions
Saturated Hydrocarbon ­ single bonds only
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon ­ contains carbon-carbon double bonds
Aliphatic Hydrocarbon ­ carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains
Alicyclic Hydrocarbon ­ carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure
Functional Group ­ the part of the molecule responsible for its chemical reactions
Homologous Series ­ organic compounds with the same functional group but each differing by CH2
Alkanes ­ General formula CnH2n+2
Nomenclature ­ the system of naming compounds
Alkyl Group ­ alkane with a hydrogen atom removed (R)
Structural Isomers ­ molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural
arrangements
Stereoisomers ­ same structural formula, but different arrangement of atoms in space
E/Z Isomerisation ­ type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to each carbon of a
C=C double bond may be arranged differently in space because of restricted rotation of the C=C
bond
Homolytic Fission ­ the breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to
each atom, forming two radicals
Radical ­ a species with an unpaired electron
Heterolytic Fission ­ the breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to
one of the atoms forming a cation (+ve) and an anion (-ve)
Nucleophile ­ an atom that is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a
pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
Electrophile ­ an atom that is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of
electrons to form a new covalent bond
Addition Reaction ­ a reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule
Substitution Reaction ­ an atom is replaced with a different atom or group
Elimination Reaction ­ the removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make an
unsaturated molecule
Fractional Distillation ­ the separation of components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ
in boiling point
Radical Substitution ­ a substitution reaction where a radical replaces a different atom.
Initiation ­ the first step in a radical substitution where the free radicals are generated by ultraviolet
radiation
Termination ­ the step at the end of radical substitution when two radicals combine to form a
molecule
Electrophilic Addition ­ a type of addition reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an
electron-rich centre or atom, where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond
Carbocation ­ an organic ion in which a carbon atom has a positive charge
Polymer ­ a long molecular chain built up from monomer units
Monomer ­ a small molecule that combines with other monomers to form a polymer
Addition Polymerisation ­ the process in which unsaturated alkene molecules add on to growing
polymer chain one at a time, to form a very long saturated molecular chain (the addition polymer)
Repeat Unit ­ a specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the structure over and over again.

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